BEd 2nd Year Describe Gestalt’s insight theory of learning Study Notes
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Insight Theory of Learning
It is also known as Gestalt theory. ‘Gestalt’ is a German word that means a whole or a total composition. Wertheimer is regarded as the father of Gestalt theory, and it was further refined and developed by Kurt koftka and Wolfgang Kohler.
According to this theory, an individual learns an object as a whole, a single entity, not in parts or bits. For doing every activity we have used our insight. When we are not able to solve a problem easily then we solve it with the help of insight. When we get a sudden solution to the problem then it is called the insight method or theory.
Thus, gestalt, or the patterning of the whole is a potent factor in a learning situation because it gives rise to insight. In other world, ‘Insight’ is the process of perceiving the relationship among various things given in a situation, point, or solution of the problem.
Max Wertheimer is generally considered to be Gestalt psychology’s founding father. The other pioneers in this field are Kohler, Koffka, and Wolfgang. ‘Gestalt’ is a German word whose equivalents in English are ‘form’ or ‘pattern’ or ‘configuration’, Max Wertheimer has explained the term ‘Gestalt’ as, that the whole is greater than the parts. For example, a flower is just not a total of sepals, petals, calyx, corolla, color, honey, and fragrance but something more than that. The total of the parts is not equal to the whole. This is known as the Gestalt viewpoint. (BEd 2nd Year Describe Gestalt’s insight theory of learning Study Notes)
According to this view, “learning is the organization and re-organization of behavior which arises from the interaction of the maturing organism and its environment. It is bringing about through this interaction of new forms of perception, imagination, motor coordination, and other organic behavior.” The sudden appearance of the solution is an essential characteristic of insight learning. A sudden coherent pattern of solution appears at once.
The Individual does not perform random activities, but he perceives the situation as a whole, and intuitionally reaches the goal through awakened insight by continuous, definite, and seemingly purposive reactions. Insight is the perception of the relationship between at least three factors, an agent, a goal, and intervening conditions or obstacles. Insight is often called the ‘Aha, experience, the flash of understanding which comes to us all of a sudden.
Insight, when it occurs, is characteristically accompanied by an ‘I have got it Exclamation the eyes light up, knit brows unravel, fingers snap, main feature of learning by insight is an estimate of the whole situation and arrange the means in such a way so as to reach the desired goal. The individual discusses within himself all ins and outs of it before acting upon it.
The Gestaltians tend to place more emphasis on the intrinsic organizing capacity in the brain of the individual, and they emphasize the dynamic interactions of the elements in the entire, perceptual field. Gestalt theory of learning essentially consists of problem-solving by understanding the relative position of the elements in the entire perspective or situation. When a problem arises, it tends to disturb the equilibrium of the organism that seeks a balance and so does the organism.
Actually, Gestalt psychology began with the work of German Psychologists who were studying the nature of perception. We are all now well aware that the moving picture’ is not a moving picture at all but, is a series of still pictures. The reality of still pictures flashed on the “move screen” becomes our perception of moving pictures. The focal point of this theory is the fact that when two optical stimuli are perceived by the human eye in quick succession, the reaction is one of simultaneous pattering.
Wertheimer called this the ‘phi- phenomenon. Out of these observations of perception, there emerged certain principles that have implications for the general nature of learning. One principle is that have implications for the general nature of learning. One principle is that the human mind gives an organization or pattern to the environmental world revelated to the organism through sense perception. (BEd 2nd Year Describe Gestalt’s insight theory of learning Study Notes)
Educational Implication of Insight Theory
Insight theory has a very important role in education as:
- In this theory, students are provided such an environment that they themselves are inspired to learn something
- The theory is very useful for inventions and discoveries.
- The teacher should try to motivate the students properly for insight learning.
- The teacher should give complete knowledge to students about the activity he is trying to learn. Because partial knowledge of anything is faithful. (BEd 2nd Year Describe Gestalt’s insight theory of learning Study Notes)
- Before using this method the teacher should make sure that be De given enough knowledge to the student about that activity because it aspects insight. (BEd 2nd Year Describe Gestalt’s insight theory of learning Study Notes)
- It develops motivation in students.
- This theory is based on from whole to part and from simple to concrete.
- This method neither emphasizes mugging up nor considers the student as a machine or instrument.
- It can be very useful for research on a student.
- It increases students’ level of aspiration.