BEd 2nd Year Describe Pavlov’s classical conditions theory of learning
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Classical Conditioning Learning Theory (Pavlov)
There are two kinds of positive conditioning-Classical and operant or instrumental conditioning and negative conditioning process extinction. Classical and operant conditioning help in gaining responses or habits to an organism but through extinction organism losses them. (BEd 2nd Year Describe Pavlov’s classical conditions theory of learning)
It is associated with incidents such as Pavlov’s training a dog to salivate at the ringing of a bell, it is ‘stimulus substitution’. He was basically interested in studying the process of gastric secretion in dogs. The physiological secretion was the basis of classical conditioning the classified reflexes into two categories. Physiological and psychic reflex.
The psychic reflexes occur only as a result of their particular experience. Physiological reflexes are the innate process. The dog began to salivate by ringing a bell. Pavlov was Russian physiologist during the late nineteenth and early 20th century.
There term ‘conditioning has been defined by psychologists.
“Conditioning is the automatization of behavior by repetition of stimuli which follow in give a response and which ultimately become a cause for the behavior which formally they merely accompanied.” -H. W. Bernard
“The simplest interpretation of this phenomenon is that when two stimuli are presented repeatedly together, the new one first then the original, effect on the new also become effective.” -J.P. Guilford
“In a conditioned reflex the natural stimulus to action has been replaced by an otherwise ineffective stimulus which has become effective through association.” -Ladell
Classical conditioning may be defined as, “a process in which a natural stimulus, by pairing with an unnatural stimulus acquires all the qualities of natural stimulus.”
US + US → UR (Experiment)
CS → CR (Conditioning)
Where: C = Conditioned U=Unconditioned,
S = Stimulus and R = Response
Pavlov conducted an experiment on a dog that was kept hungry and put in a controlled situation. The eyes of the dog were covered so that dog could hear and not see.
Simultaneously the food was placed in the mouth along with ringing a bell. The procedure was repeated several times. The dog began to salivate only ringing the ball. His famous concepts of conditioning were derived mainly from his interpretation of how dog he has when placed in such a situation.
The phenomenon of conditioning is attributed to psychic reflexes.
S (food) + R (Saliva) Natural
S (bell) → R (Hearing)
US +CS, → UR (Saliva) Natural
(food) + (bell) → (Saliva) Experiment
US (food) was removed only by the sound of the bell. The dog began to salivate after repeating this situation.
CS → CR
(Bell) → (Saliva) Conditioned Stimulus
The food was replaced by the natural stimulus sound of the bell. It is known as conditioning.
Stimulus Generalization-Refers to the fact that a CR established to a specific CS will be made also to other stimuli which more or less resemble that specific CS. (BEd 2nd Year Describe Pavlov’s classical conditions theory of learning)
Generalization Gradient-Refers to the fact that these substituted stimuli are less effective, the less they resemble the specific CS.
Differentiation-It is the overcoming of the initial generalization by use of selective reinforcement. The word differentiation means just what it says since the animal learns to make different responses to different stimuli. When a little child calls a man Papa he is showing stimulus generalization, which will soon be corrected by selective reinforcement from the social environment.
Conditioned Response in Human Beings
Babies have been tried with a buzzer-bottle sequence. Children are conditioned so that they stop crying at the sound of the buzzer, open their mouths, and make sucking movements.
Conditioning becomes easier and quicker as the child advances in age up to 4 years but beyond that age human beings seem, at least, to become less, easily conditioned.
Brook the most fundamental elementary characteristic of a conditioned response is the fact that as a result of experience with an appropriate situation the individual responds to a particular stimulus with a form of behavior that he had not previously made to it.
The appropriate situation for this beginning is that the new stimulus occurs just before the desired response is made to some stimulus that is already effective. (BEd 2nd Year Describe Pavlov’s classical conditions theory of learning)
Laws of Classical Conditioning Pavlov and his students carried out several experiments on conditioned reflex and formulated the following laws:
- Establishment of CR by repetition with reinforcement.
- Extension of CR by repetition,
- Delayed CR (Gradient of reinforcement), and
- The CR is likely rather unselective.
1. Establishment of CR by Repetition with Reinforcement-A conditioned response is established and retained for several months by repetition with reinforcement.
Reinforcement in bell experiment means that food is always påven after ringing the bell for its regular time say 15 seconds.
The salivation is at its maximum in some trials but is much smaller than in unconditioned responses that sustain salivation when food is in the mouth. The conditioned response sustains another response entirely different from the final response.
2. Extension of CR by Repetition Without Reinforcement-Conditioned response can be extinguished by repeatedly giving the conditioned stimulus not followed with an unconditioned stimulus. All the time ringing the bell but no food is given.
The word extinction is rather too strong for the extinguishing CR can be easily restored neither to two ways: giving one or two reinforcements simply placing the animal at rest and next day spontaneous recovery of the CR will be seen for saliva will flow at the sound of the bell. it the food is withheld this day extinction to move rapidly than before, and the repetition of this procedure day after day with no reinforcement finally leads to permanent loss of the CR.
3. Delayed CR (Gradient of Reinforcement)-When reinforcement is delayed: Let the bell or metronome always sound for a full minute before the food is given. Early in the process of conditioning when CR first appears it comes almost as on as the sound begins and continues for the whole minute of delay. (BEd 2nd Year Describe Pavlov’s classical conditions theory of learning)
Day after day however as the conditioning process CR makes and more delayed to near two minutes. He has become adjusted to the timing of the stimuli. He has learned two-phase CR first adjusted in preparation for a long wait and then waking up and salivating in preparation for food. (BEd 2nd Year Describe Pavlov’s classical conditions theory of learning)
4. The CR is Likely Rather Unselective-The conditioned response le rather be unselective in the sense that it can be aroused by any sudden stimulus that resembles the regular stimulus employed as the signal (CS) in the conditioning, if the regular CS so far used has been an elective bell a buzzer is introduced, the regular CR will be made though it may be rather weak.
If the regular CR has been a musical tone a higher or lower have will produce the CR lower tone the regular CS has been a touch on the shoulder, a touch on the flank can be substituted. How can the CR be made more selective?
Limitations Of Classical Conditioning
This theory of learning has the following limitations:
1. This theory of learning has been developed by conducting an experiment on a dog in a controlled situation and kept hungry for some days. Pavlov created a physiological need in the dog, after that the experiment was conducted and a conditioning concept was developed.
Thus the theory is not much useful for human learning. It can be used for training animals and children.
2. Conditioning is a mechanical process of learning. It does not emphasize the role of thinking or recalling earlier experiences thus memory is also an important factor. (BEd 2nd Year Describe Pavlov’s classical conditions theory of learning)
3. The conditioning learning is unstable. It depends on continuous practice or repetition of the situation for providing consistent experiences. (BEd 2nd Year Describe Pavlov’s classical conditions theory of learning)