Bed 2nd Year Describe Reflective Teaching-Learning Notes
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Reflective level of teaching is that teaching which is problem-centered in nature in which the learner is engaged In an original imaginative and critical approach to the subject and does deep or serious kind of thinking. The learner examines facts and generalizations and seeks out a new ones. Memory and understanding levels of the teaching of the content are the pre-requisite for this level of teaching. (Bed 2nd Year Describe Reflective Teaching-Learning Notes)
Bigge’s comments on such teaching are most pertinent
“Reflective level of teaching tends to develop the classroom atmosphere which is more alive and exciting, more critical and penetrating, and more open than fresh and original thinking. Furthermore, the type inquiry is persuaded by a reflective class tends to be more rigorous and ‘work producing’ than pursued at an understanding level situation”. -Bigge
The following are the main objective of this model-
- To develop the ability for problem-solving.
- To develop critical and creative thinking.
- To enable the student for independent or original thinking.
Reflective and non-reflective teaching-learning can be distinguished by the presence of a problem that students feel a need to solve. Reflective teaching-learning is a problem-centered situation.
An understanding of how to solve problems according to principles of scientific reflection is perhaps the most useful intellectual tool a person can process, If the central goal of education is to foster intelligence, reflective teaching-learning should be the core approach used by teachers everywhere. A reflection consists of divergent thinking and mastery of the subject matter These are pre-requisites of reflective teaching-learning, The classroom atmosphere is one of teacher-student mutual inquiry within which genuine problems are developed and solved. (Bed 2nd Year Describe Reflective Teaching-Learning Notes)
The problem as stated will induce any significant kind of psychological tension in students. It is the permissive approach of teaching-learning A problem is a felt tension or anxiety, and formulation based on this knowledge, (If all approaches to leading hold promise in many cases of effectively translating the ‘problems of others’ into the problems of students. John Dewey and Kurt Lewin have given problem situations related to life situations that create tension and anxiety that have been discussed in the chapter-learning theory.
True problem-centered teaching, like any other teaching which leads to understanding, is necessarily an unhurried procedure. It is very difficult and usually impossible to pursue problem-centered teaching in situations characterized by rigid scheduling time or of units to be covered. It is like an open-learning. The learner has the full freedom to react to the situation.
Procedure for Reflective Thinking
Reflective thinking involves divergent thinking and mastery of the material or subject content. It operates under the following four graded steps-
- Felt need for the problem-It may be the problem of others.
- Formulation of tentative solutions or hypotheses which indicate the possible solutions,
- Testing the hypothesis-It requires the collection of evidence or data for accepting and rejecting hypotheses.
- Conclusions—The testing of hypotheses leads to arriving at certain conclusions, indicating the empirical solution for the problem.
The above procedure is also used in conducting empirical research and organizing reflective level teaching. It is also difficult to evaluate the learning outcomes of this type of teaching because there is no fixed or correct answer to a problem or question. The involvement in the problem, production and conclusions, attitudes and adjustment, and critical or logical thinking is the basis for evaluation.
Evaluation of reflective teaching-learning-It has the following advantages and limitations-
- A rigid schedule of teaching-learning can not be used in this type of learning.
- It is highly based on the maturity and creativity of the learners.
- Teaching is mainly problem-centered. which creates tension in the learner.
- A rigid structure of the content can be used in reflective level teaching.
- It develops creative, original, and independent thinking among students. It is a free-floating situation. It encourages open learning. (Bed 2nd Year Describe Reflective Teaching-Learning Notes)
- It grows more with a unique relationship where the minds of teachers and students are engaged in any different nature of formal course material. (Bed 2nd Year Describe Reflective Teaching-Learning Notes)
Improving Reflective Level of Teaching-Learning
Hunt has given the following suggestions for reflective teaching
- Reflective teaching should only be recognized when the learners have passed the memory and understanding level tests.
- The scientific four steps should be followed systematically with great precautions.
- The learner should be sensitive to the problem. A teacher should create the need for the problem.
- A teacher should raise the level of aspiration of students for their involvement in the problem.
- A teacher should create problematic situations which may develop the original and creative thinking of the learners.
- The students should feel about the problem so that they may formulate the hypotheses of the problem.
- The learner should be objective in collecting the evidence for the problem and drawing conclusions.
- The learner should be given the freedom to think independently. Therefore, teachers should be democratic in dealing with students. (Bed 2nd Year Describe Reflective Teaching-Learning Notes)