Bed 2nd Year Describe Retention Notes Study Material
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Retention is the factor responsible for preserving the material learned. Learning experiences give certain engrams on the brain, which are preserved or retained, first in the conscious mind, and then in the unconscious through the subconscious. Retention helps in retaining the things learned previously. William James believes that retention is a physiological quality given only once and for all with his organization, which he can never hope to change. Retention is also a psychological process and is essential for education.
The following factors affect the ‘Retention Capacity‘ of the individuals-
- Nature of Material-Nature of material affects the retention power of the individuals. If the learning material is meaningful from the view of the learner, it will be retained easily and for a longer time. Prose, poetry, and motor skills are retained over longer periods than abstract subjects. The higher intensity of the stimulus and the increasing extent of the amount of material and learning also assist in better retention.
- Methods of Learning-The Methods of learning significantly influence the retention of individuals. Learning by the whole method. The recitation method and spaced method affect the retention power in a positive direction.
- Speed of Learning-Fast learner can retain the material better than a slow learner.
- Mental Set-Mental set with which the individual learns affects the degree to which is remembered. If the individual learns with the intent to remember for a longer period, he can retain the things better than the individual who has studied the things with the set to learn them only for immediate recall. If the individual learns matters with more interest, attention, and concentration he will learn easily and can retain for a longer time.
- Thinking and Reasoning-When we think and reason out on certain issues. we can remember them easily for a longer time than the people who learn the material without thinking and reasoning (just mechanically)
- Recency and Frequency of Impressions—The more recent and frequent events are learned and remembered easily and quickly than the old and infrequent events.