BEd 2nd Year Education and Philosophy Study Material Notes
BEd 2nd Year Education and Philosophy Study Material Notes: A2zNotes Presents study material Long Question Answer Notes by the Latest BEd Syllabus for Philosophical and Socialogical Perspective of Education. A Collection of Question-Answers compiled and Edited by A2zNotes Well Experienced Authors Based on Latest Two-Years BEd Curriculum. Here in this post, we will provide you with Long Questions and Answers for the Definition and Meaning of Education and Philosophy, Features of Philosophy.
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Meaning and Definition of Philosophy
1. Etymological Meaning of Philosophy—The word philosophy is derived from two Greek words-‘Philos’ and ‘Sophia’. ‘Philos’ means love and ‘Sophia’ means wisdom. Thus, philosophy means love of wisdom. In this way, a search for wisdom or truth is called philosophy, and the man who engages himself in this search is called a philosopher. (BEd 2nd Year Education and Philosophy Study Material Notes)
In his famous book “Republic’ Plato says-“He who has a taste for every sort of knowledge and who is curious to learn and is never satisfied may be justly termed a philosopher.”
2. Specific Meaning of Philosophy-To be precise and definite, one may call philosophy deep thinking and meditation which concerns itself with God, the soul, and Nature. This concentration and deep thinking are for revealing the hidden and immortal realities of existence namely-What is the nature of life, the whence human being has come and what will be his final destination, how external nature affects human life, how these cosmos operate, how docs the heavenly bodies affect human life, is there any life after this, what is heaven and hell. (BEd 2nd Year Education and Philosophy Study Material Notes)
All these are the subjects and topics of philosophical thinking and ultimate realization. As these mental activities are abstract and difficult in nature, only capable and great persons can indulge in them. Common people cannot do this type of deep and concentrated thinking. Henderson and his colleagues have well said-“Philosophy is it rigorous disciplined and guarded analysis of some must difficult problems which man has ever faced.”
3. Wider Meaning of Philosophy-Philosophers do not form a specific and special group themselves. All those persons are philosophers who in one way or the other search for truth and realities. A deep study reveals the fact that a man undergoes various kinds of experiences throughout his long life from birth to death. These experiences provide him with new knowledge. As a result, he develops a capacity to discriminate between right and wrong, proper and improper, relevant and irrelevant through these experiences.
In a sense, each of us does this search work in some way or the other to some lesser or greater extent. This search is essential for life to go on smoothly in this world full of diversities. (BEd 2nd Year Education and Philosophy Study Material Notes)
In this sense, each of us becomes a philosopher at some time or the other. As this search for truth is philosophy, the great Herman philosopher Schopenhour rightly remarks-“Every man is a born metaphysician.”
The above discussion shows clearly that every man is engaged in the search for truth to understand well the realities of things and occurrences. Through this thinking, he gets knowledge out of which he deduces a set of principles for his own use. He forms a set of ideals and values and begins to believe in them often implicitly. (BEd 2nd Year Education and Philosophy Study Material Notes)
Thus, according to Huxley—“Men live in accordance with their philosophy of life, their conception of the world. This is true even of the most thoughtless. It is impossible to live without metaphysics.”
Definition of Philosophy
To make the meaning of philosophy more clear, the following definitions are being given
- “Philosophy is a persistent attempt to give insight into the nature of the world and of ourselves by means of systematic reflection.”
- “Philosophy like other studies aims primarily at knowledge.”.
Features of Philosophy
Philosophy is born out of experiences and circumstances with which, it is closely related. But it has an intimate relationship with science as well. (BEd 2nd Year Education and Philosophy Study Material Notes)
We discuss below these two special features of philosophy:-
1. Philosophy according to Experience and Situation, The first special feature of philosophy is that it comes out of specific experiences, special circumstances, and situations. (BEd 2nd Year Education and Philosophy Study Material Notes)
This is the reason why different persons adopted different philosophies of life in accordance with the specific circumstances and conditions wherein they spent their lives. They not only accepted their philosophies as mental beliefs only, but they tried to translate their principles and philosophical beliefs into practice also. (BEd 2nd Year Education and Philosophy Study Material Notes)
For example, Gautam Buddha pondered over the ways to alleviate human sufferings which he saw with his own eyes. Prophet Mohammad and Christ both prescribed ways of life to alleviate human misery. These ways later came to take the form of Religions which they expected to be followed by their followers, and it did happen.
Hitler believed in a militant philosophy of courage and dash and so he propounded authoritarianism and despotism. Omar Khayyam believed in the philosophy of pleasure and indulgence and hence he preached pleasure seeking.
In our country, the cult of Charvakism propagated a philosophy of materialism and advocated individuals to eat, drink and be merry by all means and at all times. (BEd 2nd Year Education and Philosophy Study Material Notes)
On the other hand, Mahatama Gandhi was a believer in spiritual and moral values of life and his philosophy of non-violence preaches abstinence, pity, kindness, fellow-feeling, and piety in all spheres of life. Hence, we can conclude that a certain philosophy is the product of times and circumstances and is born out of human experiences related to those times and conditions of life and society.
2. Philosophy and Science-Philosophy is also closely related to Science. Science deals with the realities of nature and living animals or humans. Those realities are Integral parts of the life of a child. These serve as raw material for the structuring of experiences for human beings. This interaction and experiences go from philosophy. (BEd 2nd Year Education and Philosophy Study Material Notes)
In short, the realities of life are as essential as thoughts. Both cooperate to give rise to philosophy. A child must study both science and philosophy to know and understand the truth and reality of natural and human phenomena. Aims propounded by philosophy and science are the goal of education to pursue and realize actual human life. Truth is related to circumstances and situation-political, social, economic, and spiritual. (BEd 2nd Year Education and Philosophy Study Material Notes)
These circumstances and situations condition our thinking and our view of truth and reality. We shall be propagating these truths and realities of life by várious means of education. (BEd 2nd Year Education and Philosophy Study Material Notes)