BEd 2nd Year Humanism and Education Study Material Notes
BEd 2nd Year Humanism and Education Study Material Notes: A2zNotes Presents study material Long Question Answer Notes by the Latest BEd Syllabus for Philosophical and Socialogical Perspective of Education. A Collection of Question-Answers compiled and Edited by A2zNotes Well Experienced Authors Based on Latest Two-Years BEd Curriculum. Here in this post, we will provide you with Long Questions and Answers for the Definition and Meaning of Humanism and Education, the Concept of Education, the Aims of Education, the Curriculum of Education, and the Methods of Teaching.
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Humanism and Education
Humanists believe in the progress of the whole of mankind. In their viewpoint, it can be possible only when every man lives for others. For it, it is essential that they think that everything in the world is for all.
Classical Humanists lay more emphasis on the fulfilment of the emotional (social and cultural) needs of man, and Scientific Humanists lay emphasis on the fulfilment of material needs. (BEd 2nd Year Humanism and Education Study Material Notes)
And for it all, humanists consider humanistic education essential. They have drawn the outline of the whole education for man. It is being discussed here. (BEd 2nd Year Humanism and Education Study Material Notes)
Concept of Education
Humanists do not consider only school education as education; rather all the experiences that the children get in the company of family, society and school or at any other place are included in education. It is clear that they conceive education in its wider form. In their view, education is a constructive process which makes the present and future of human beings beautiful and progressive.
Aims of Education
According to humanists the main aim of education should be to make a man a good man and to make him a creative and progressive man, and it can be possible only when he is physically healthy and intellectually elevated and human values are developed in him. They believe in the happiness and prosperity of the whole of mankind, and it can be possible only when they all are skilled in the production and distribution of products. (BEd 2nd Year Humanism and Education Study Material Notes)
We can express all these aims in modern terminology, as follows :
- Physical and Intellectual Development: By physical development, humanists mean the development of the health of man and by intellectual development, they mean the development of logic in man. They argue that in the absence of good health, no person can work and in the absence of logic, no person can take correct decisions in any field, therefore, education should be used to effect the development of these two aspects. Besides, they want to use education in making man experience his intellectual greatness. (BEd 2nd Year Humanism and Education Study Material Notes)
- Social and Cultural Development: Classical humanists believe in the continuous development of man and society; they favour the renaissance of human culture, and they consider the whole of mankind as one, therefore in place of narrow social and cultural feelings, they lay emphasis on extensive social and cultural spirit. In their view, this type of social and cultural development can be used to make the whole of mankind happy.
- Development of Higher Human Values: According to humanists, the greatest human value is good for all; it includes all the qualities of love, service and cooperation, etc. In their view, in order to make the whole human community happy it is essential to develop human values in all people and this task should be performed by education.
- Development of Productive Capability: According to humanists, the basic needs of man are of two types-emotional and material. For the fulfilment of emotional needs, their social and cultural development is necessary, and the development of higher human values is necessary. And for the fulfilment of material needs, it is necessary to make them skilled in the production of different products that are useful to them. Humanists oppose subduing man to science, but they support the humanistic use of science. (BEd 2nd Year Humanism and Education Study Material Notes)
- Development of Creativity: Humanists consider man as creative and progressive since birth. In their view, education should be used to awaken these basic or inherent powers of man. They argue that creativity is the mother of progress. But this creation should be for the good of all, and not for their destruction or harm.
Curriculum of Education
Humanists stress making man a good man. In their viewpoint, a good man is one who believes in the good of all and conducts himself accordingly. On this basis, they have determined the aims of education, and have also constructed curricula for the realization of these aims. (BEd 2nd Year Humanism and Education Study Material Notes)
In their view, the curriculum should comprise hygiene and exercise for the protection and development of health, reasoning subjects and activities for the development of logic power, different languages, literature, history, art and other humanities for the development of social and cultural forbearance, human service for the development of higher human values, science and technology for the development of productive capability, and creative activities for the development of creativity.
Methods of Teaching
Humanists have laid the greatest emphasis on logic and reasoning. They emphasize testing the knowledge got by sense organs through logic and reasoning. In their view, question-answer, debate, problem-solving and logic are the best methods of teaching-learning. In the context of teaching, they have laid emphasis on the following facts:
- Selection of a teaching method should be done on the basis of the physical and mental development of the students.
- The students should be given independent opportunities to learn.
- The students should have active participation in the process of learning.
- Students’ logic and intellect should be used in the process of teaching-learning.
- Whatever is taught to the students, it should be related to their life.
- Individual differences of the students should be kept in view.
- Diagnostic and remedial teaching should be arranged for backward students.
Humanists are in favour of self-discipline. In their view, true discipline can neither be maintained by instructions and, orders nor by reward or punishment. The term punishment is an inhuman act. In their view, discipline should be developed by discipline itself. If the teachers follow discipline, the learners would abide by it. In their view, errors should be rectified by love and not by punishment.
In the viewpoint of humanists, the teachers should have sound knowledge of the subjects to be taught and also of the students. They should know what to teach and how to teach. Their attitude towards their students should be liberal, they should respect the personality of the students and should carry out the responsibility of their complete development. The teachers should be progressive and dynamic and they must believe in the re-creation of the world. (BEd 2nd Year Humanism and Education Study Material Notes)
Humanists respect the personality of students; they are not in favour of making them the blind followers of the teachers; they are in the favour of giving them the freedom to think and take decisions of their own. Humanists are staunch opponents of taking teachers and students as the ruler and the ruled. (BEd 2nd Year Humanism and Education Study Material Notes)
They are in the favour of human relationships between the teacher and the students based on love and cooperation. They expect the teachers to keep the students free from all types of fear, struggles or tensions. In their view, humanistic qualities can be developed in the students only under these circumstances. (BEd 2nd Year Humanism and Education Study Material Notes)
Humanists consider schools as the laboratory of creating man. According to them, everybody in the school should behave with all others humanly and should cooperate with one another in their comfort and happiness.