BEd 2nd Year Meaning of Humanism Study Material Notes
BEd 2nd Year Meaning of Humanism Study Material Notes: A2zNotes Presents study material Long Question Answer Notes by the Latest BEd Syllabus for Philosophical and Sociological Perspective of Education. A Collection of Question-Answers compiled and Edited by A2zNotes Well Experienced Authors Based on Latest Two-Years BEd Curriculum. Here in this post, we will provide you with Long Questions and Answers for the Definition and Meaning of Humanism, Metaphysics of Humanism, Epistemology & Logic of Humanism, Axiology & Ethics of Humanism, and Fundamental Humanism.
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Meaning and Definition of Humanism
The focal point of any type of thought of man is man himself. In philosophical thought, his present as well his origin and end are discussed and accordingly the code of conduct is formed for him. In social thought, his social life is discussed and norms for his behaviour are determined in order to make his social life better. In political thought, political systems are discussed and the most suitable political system is selected for him. (BEd 2nd Year Meaning of Humanism Study Material Notes)
In economic thought, different economic systems and methods of economic development are discussed in order to raise the standard of his life. (BEd 2nd Year Meaning of Humanism Study Material Notes)
In psychological thought, fundamental bases and factors of man’s behaviour are discussed and his development is affected. In scientific thought, the utility of matter for man is discovered and an attempt is made to make human life happy through their use. Thus, the focal point of all types of thoughts is man himself, and all thoughts are inclined towards the betterment of human life.
Thus, all types of thoughts are basically humanistic. But when we talk of humanistic thought today, it means a specific philosophical thought of the modem times, which considers the whole world as one family and is inclined towards the discovery of the path of happiness and peace for the whole human community. (BEd 2nd Year Meaning of Humanism Study Material Notes)
History is witness that religion (Church) ruled the roost in Europe until the end of the thirteenth century, the people there lived life bound by religion. Scientific inventions began to occur there in the fourteenth century. It ended several religious orthodox beliefs and started the process of industrialization. (BEd 2nd Year Meaning of Humanism Study Material Notes)
As a result, the people were attracted to the physical comforts in place of spiritual bliss. It begot some benefits and some harms. A man came to be considered a machine and despite material prosperity, his life became sad.
The intellectual people started to raise their voices against this inclination towards science and made efforts to re-establish the honour of man. Some scholars consider it the beginning of humanism. But the fact is that humanism did not develop during that period in the form of philosophy. (BEd 2nd Year Meaning of Humanism Study Material Notes)
The present humanism started in the eighteenth century in its proper form. This century saw the beginning of revolutionary thought against the contemporary religious, political and elite systems and capitalism, etc. in the first half of the eighteenth century. Voltaire raised his voice against intellectual repression. He gave the slogan of knowledge against ignorance. His thought was called Rationalism.
In the latter half of the eighteenth century, Rousseau challenged the contemporary monarchical political system, exploitative religion and class-based social system and gave the slogan of “return to nature” in order to save the people from suffering. His thought was called Naturalism. (BEd 2nd Year Meaning of Humanism Study Material Notes)
Though both these thinkers made efforts to save people from all types of bounds and make their life better, the paths that they chose did not do much benefit man. (BEd 2nd Year Meaning of Humanism Study Material Notes)
Some of the thinkers of the modern age opposed religion and science, but accepted the significance of culture and chose the path of peace instead of struggle and revolution for its propagation. The beginning of modern humanism is considered to be from here. This thought is called Classical Humanism. (BEd 2nd Year Meaning of Humanism Study Material Notes)
On the other hand, some philosophers, Schiller, etc. accepted the significance of science, but alongside a laid emphasis on two things-man should not be a slave to machinery, and science should be used for constructive tasks. These thinkers were in the favour of making science a slave to man, and not otherwise. They tried to free man from religious orthodox beliefs and dogmas, and secondly inclined man towards the proper constructive use of science. Due to their emphasis on the use of science for the benefit of mankind, their thought is called Scientific Humanism. (BEd 2nd Year Meaning of Humanism Study Material Notes)
Now the question arises to understand the form of humanism. For it, it is necessary to understand its metaphysics, epistemology, logic, axiology and ethics. So we shall make an attempt in this regard.
Metaphysics of Humanism
Humanistic thinkers have accepted naturalistic metaphysics. They do not believe in any spiritual power and consider nature as the ultimate reality. They consider that this material world is made by nature and is real. In their view this material world is changeable. To man is the best product of nature. They consider the aim of human life as the development of higher humanity.
Epistemology and Logic of Humanism
Humanists consider the knowledge of the forms of all objects and activities of this world as produced from matter as true knowledge, In their view, the nature of knowledge is rational, until the knowledge has been tested by the sense organs, it cannot be true knowledge. Humanism does not consider any statement as true that is not found true in logic,
Axiology and Ethics of Humanism
Humanists consider man as the centre of this universe and the whole of mankind of the world as one. They want to see all people of the world free, happy and progressive. In their view, ‘good for all’ is the most important value of human life. Humanistic philosopher, Vergerio of Italy believed that values are developed in man by the study of literature.
As against Vergerio, humanistic philosopher J.H. Newman does not believe in any type of moral values. He says that values should be reasonable. But most humanistic philosophers consider truth, beauty, goodness, justice, social equality, love, sympathy and cooperation as the values of human life. (BEd 2nd Year Meaning of Humanism Study Material Notes)
In their view, every man should behave with others with love and should cooperate with them.
Definition of Humanism
The metaphysics of humanism is not fully clear, so it is a difficult task to define it in the form of philosophical thought. Of course, it is inclined toward the welfare of the whole of mankind, so it has been defined in Encyclopaedia Britannica as follows :
Humanism is the attitude of mind which attaches primary importance to man and to his faculties, affairs, temporal aspirations and well-being.
Maslow has defined humanism in the following way:
Humanism is a word which is used by writers in many different senses. One of these implies that man makes up the entire framework of human thought, that there is no God, no superhuman reality to which he can be related or can relate himself.
In our view, on the basis of the general concept regarding metaphysics, epistemology, logic; axiology and ethics of humanism, we can define humanism as follows:
Humanism is that school of Western philosophy which considers this world as made of matter and accepts the material world as the only real world. It does not consider the concepts of God and soul and propounds that the ultimate aim of human life is to live happily and peacefully, which can be achieved by thinking and doing good for all.
Fundamental Principles of Humanism
If we desire to organise metaphysics, epistemology, logic, axiology ethics of humanism in the form of principles, then we can do it as follows:
- There is No Regulating Entity of the World: In the viewpoint of humanists, the world has its own creative powers, it is made from those powers, and there is no other creator of it. (BEd 2nd Year Meaning of Humanism Study Material Notes)
- This Material World is True, besides it, there is No Other ritual World: Humanists consider this material world as true and consider all its objects and activities as true. They argue that man has to live in this material world, so it is the only truth for him. They consider the world as changeable and progressive. Besides it, they do not believe in any other world.
- There is No Existence of God: Humanistic thinkers have thought only about the physical comfort of man. In their viewpoint, God does not help man in this task. There is nothing like God in the world, He has no existence.
- Man is the Peak of the Development of this material World: In the viewpoint of humanists, man is not an ordinary being or a machine but a rational being. He is armed with constructive abilities and infinite possibilities for development.
- Human Development depends on Himself: Humanists do not believe in God and fortune, they believe in action. In their view, whatever physical and intellectual capabilities that man has got from the world, are the fundamental bases of his development.