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# BEd 2nd Year Meaning of Measurement Study Material Notes

BEd 2nd Year Meaning of Measurement Study Material Notes: A2zNotes Presents study material Long Question Answer Notes by the Latest BEd Syllabus for Pedagogy of Social Science. A Collection of Question-Answers compiled and Edited by A2zNotes Well Experienced Authors Based on Latest Two-Years BEd Curriculum. Here in this post, we will provide you with Long Questions and Answers for the Definition, and Meaning of Measurement, Essentials of Measurement, Functions of Measurement, Scales of Measurement, or levels of Measurement.

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## Meaning of Measurement

Measurement is a process of quantification. It means precision and quantification of a phenomenon or variable, but not a person or object. (BEd 2nd Year Meaning of Measurement Study Material Notes)

According to Bradfield, “Measurement is a process of assigning symbols to the dimensions of the phenomenon in order to characterize the status of the phenomenon as precisely as possible.”

Measurement is always done of a quality, attribute, or variable of a thing or a person. We never measure a thing or person. Psychologists and educationists are mainly concerned with the variables and attributes. The process of measurement converts the variable into variate which is used for drawing the inferences. For example, intelligence is quantified in terms of I.Q., and the achievement variable is measured in terms of scores. (BEd 2nd Year Meaning of Measurement Study Material Notes)

### Essentials of Measurement

Measurement in any field always involves these essentials:

(i) Identifying and defining the quality, attribute, or variable that is to be measured.

(ii) Determining the set of operations by which the attribute of a variable may be made manifest and perceivable, and

(iii) Establishing a set of procedures of definitions for translating observations into a quantitative statement of degree, extent, or amount. (BEd 2nd Year Meaning of Measurement Study Material Notes)

### Functions of Measurement

Cronbach (1949) has classified all applications of mental measurement under the following three main functions:

1. Prognosis function,

2. Diagnosis function, and

3. Research function.

1. Prognosis Function. The first of these functions is the prognosis function. Any test tells about some differences among people’s performance in this movement. All decisions involve prediction when the psychological test is mentioned, the so-called IQ test administered to students in school to predict their academic performance come to mind. The measurement provides the extent of a variable that has the specific purpose of predicting future behavior.

The prognosis has administrative functions such as classification, selection, promotion, and gradation of students. College studies ask a counselor to help them choose the best curriculum or job. Thus, the guidance and counseling services are also based on the prognosis function of measurements. The effectiveness of method instruction and treatment is evaluated on the basis of student achievement. (BEd 2nd Year Meaning of Measurement Study Material Notes)

2. Diagnosis Function. The second major function of measurement listed by Lee J. Cronbach is that of diagnosis. The prognosis function reveals the level of the student with regard to certain characteristics, whereas the diagnosis function identifies the weakness of the student’s learning. (BEd 2nd Year Meaning of Measurement Study Material Notes)

The remedial instruction is prepared on the basis of diagnosis. It also implies the prediction but there is considerable justification in listing the diagnosis as a separate function of measurement. (BEd 2nd Year Meaning of Measurement Study Material Notes)

The diagnosis function establishes the cause-effect relationship but prediction implies a simple relationship. The instructional procedure can be improved by this function of psychological measurement.

3. Research Function. The third major function of measurement listed by Cronbach is that of verification of the scientific hypothesis of the research. The use of measurement for research purposes, however, is not as great as for prediction and diagnosis. There is a reason for this as the measurement is usually considered a completely valid measure of ascertaining human characteristics.

An investigator must use test scores in this experiment as accurate quantification of real and useful variables. Measurement provides a more objective and dependable basis for comparison that does rough impressions. Thus, valid generalizations are made on the basis of accurate measurement. (BEd 2nd Year Meaning of Measurement Study Material Notes)

In fact, quantification is generally considered essential for the progress of education particularly at more advanced levels. The scales of measurement have been also discussed below:

### Scales of Measurement or Levels of Measurement

There are four basic ways of quantifying a variable. They are also called levels of measurement and are commonly referred to as scales:

(1) Nomial Scale,

(2) Ordinal or Rank Scale,

(3) Equal Interval Scale, and

(4) Ratio Scale.

1. Nomial Scale. The nominal scale is the least precise or crude among the four basic scales of measurement. It simply implies the classification of an item into two or more categories without any extent or magnitude. There is no particular order assigned to them. The frequency of numbers is used to give a name to something that may be used for determining percent mode. For example boys and girls; pass and fail; rural-urban etc. (BEd 2nd Year Meaning of Measurement Study Material Notes)

In classroom observation, the measurement is done at a nominal scale. The teaching and instruction are organized considering the mode of the students because a teacher cannot pace with each and every student in his teaching and learning process.

2. Ordinal Scale. The ordinal scale is more precise than the nominal scale. It allows the Teacher to assign values by placing or arranging the observation in relative rank order. No value is assigned to the distance between positions in the ranking. The scale assigns observation to categories by number and arranges them in a logical order. It does not require the relationship of equivalence but also requires one observation to be greater than the other.

This scale is used frequently in schools for prize distribution and to motivate by the technique of competition. In asking the questions, considers the place of the student in the class. (BEd 2nd Year Meaning of Measurement Study Material Notes)

3. Equal-Interval Scale. The equal-interval scale is a more precise and refined scale than the nominal and ordinal scale. This scale has all the characteristics and relationships of the ordinal scale, besides the distances between any two numbers on the scale are known. To zero point and the unit of measurement used on the scale are arbitrary or assumed. A linear relationship is established in the equal-interval scale. (BEd 2nd Year Meaning of Measurement Study Material Notes)

The equal-interval scale has greater use in teaching-learning situations, educational administration, educational guidance and counseling, and educational research. The effectiveness of any instructional procedure can be evaluated precisely by collecting the data on this scale. (BEd 2nd Year Meaning of Measurement Study Material Notes)

The measurement in education is usually done on the equal-interval scale. The dependable inferences are drawn in educational research by collecting evidence on the equal-interval scale. (BEd 2nd Year Meaning of Measurement Study Material Notes)

4. Ratio Scale. The ratio scale is the most refined among the four basic scales. It has all the characteristics, of an equal-interval scale. In addition to that, it has an absolute zero point representing the complete absence of the property being measured. It is used in physical sciences and less frequently in behavioral sciences. In school, it is used in maintaining the commutative records of students. The cognitive and affective objectives can be assessed by using earlier scales of measurement. The ratio scale may be used for measuring the psychomotor objectives. (BEd 2nd Year Meaning of Measurement Study Material Notes)

The measurement on various scales is done by using different types of measuring instruments. The questionnaire and observation yield ordinal data, educational and psychological tests provide scores or marks and physical measurement yields the data on a ratio scale. The characteristics of a good measuring instrument have been described here.