BEd 2nd Year Meaning of Modernization Study Material Notes
BEd 2nd Year Meaning of Modernization Study Material Notes: A2zNotes Presents study material Long Question Answer Notes by the Latest BEd Syllabus for Philosophical and Socialogical Perspective of Education. A Collection of Question-Answers compiled and Edited by A2zNotes Well Experienced Authors Based on Latest Two-Years BEd Curriculum. Here in this post, we will provide you with Long Questions and Answers for the Definition, and Meaning of Modernization.
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Meaning of Modernization
In the words of S.N. Eisenstadt, “Historically, modernization is the – process of change towards those types of social, economic and political systems that have developed in Western Europe and North America from the seventeenth century to the nineteenth and have been spread to other European countries and in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries to the South American, Asian, and African continents. “Modernization is the characteristic feature of modern society.”
S.N. Eisenstadt has rightly pointed out, “Perhaps the best starting point for the analysis of the characteristics in the educational institutions in modern societies is the pattern of demands for and the supply of educational services that tended to develop with modernization.” (BEd 2nd Year Meaning of Modernization Study Material Notes)
In the words of Yogendra Singh, “………education has been one of the most influential instruments of modernization in India. It has led to the mobilization of people’s aspiration for nationalism, liberalism and freedom. It alone has been responsible for the growth of an enlightened intelligentsia which carried forward not only a movement for independence but also a relentless struggle of social and cultural reforms.” (BEd 2nd Year Meaning of Modernization Study Material Notes)
The most important function of education is modernization. Modernization is a comprehensive concept aimed at capturing, describing and evaluating profound qualitative and quantitative changes in society. It describes the transition of a society from medieval to modern culture. It stands for progress beyond tradition. Modernization according to some sociologists is based upon European and American models. (BEd 2nd Year Meaning of Modernization Study Material Notes)
As compared to urbanization, industrialization, westernization and Europeanization, modernization presents a more complex process and a more complex result. In the intellectual sphere, it is an awareness that it is possible to see a rational explanation of physical and social phenomena. Thus, it is represented by positivism and empiricism and rationalism. In the field of religion, it is expressed in secularism. Its approach is this-worldly. (BEd 2nd Year Meaning of Modernization Study Material Notes)
In philosophy, it is expressed in humanist thought. It includes social mobilization and differentiation and specialization in individual and institutional activities. In the political field, it stands for democratization. Ecology is characterised by an advancing degree of urbanization. But the most important feature of modernization as related to education is culture. In the cultural sphere its symptoms have been pointed out by A.R. Desai as follows:
- Growing differentiation of the major elements of cultural systems, “The spread of literacy and secular education, a more complex, intellectual and institutional system for the cultivation and advancement of specialized roles based on intellectual disciplines.” (BEd 2nd Year Meaning of Modernization Study Material Notes)
- The emergence of a new cultural outlook is characterised by an emphasis on progress and improvement, happiness and spontaneous expression of abilities and feelings, on the development of individuality as a value and efficiency.
- The emergence of a new personality orientation, traits and characteristics revealed in the greater ability to adjust to the broadening societal horizons: some ego-flexibility; widening spheres of interests; growing potential sympathy order people and situations; growing evaluation of self-advancement and mobility; a growing emphasis on the present as the meaningful temporal dimension of human existence; a growing awareness of the dignity of others and an increased disposition to respect them; a growing awareness in the individual that “his world is calculable, that other people and institutions around him can be relied on to fulfil their delegation and responsibilities”, growing faith in science and technology and a growing awareness that, “rewards should be according to contribution and not according to either whim or special properties of the person not relating to his contribution.” (BEd 2nd Year Meaning of Modernization Study Material Notes)
- Finally, modernization implies, “the ability of society to develop an institutional structure capable of adjusting to continually changing problems and demands.” The emergence of such flexibility constitutes, according to Prof. Eisenstadt, the central issue and challenge of modernization. (BEd 2nd Year Meaning of Modernization Study Material Notes)
Education is the most important instrument of modernization since modernization includes:
- Directed change in the system of attitudes, beliefs and values, and also in the institutional complex, to enhance the acceptability of modern technology and its organization and operational framework.
- Growth of the infrastructure essential to the adaptation to the technology of foreign origin to specific national needs; and.
- Lay the foundations of institutions and organizations which could, in time, assume responsibility for independent innovation and technological growth to the country’s needs and problems. (BEd 2nd Year Meaning of Modernization Study Material Notes)
In view of the above-mentioned changes, required by modernization the functions of education in this direction may be achieved by the following:
- By enlarging the cognitive map of those exposed to it, education suggests alternatives to tradition, brings into focus the rewards implicit in them and indicates roughly at least the paths through which the new goals with their attendant regards can be achieved. It broadens mental horizons, raises expectations and predisposes people to make experiments.
- As an instrument of socialization, it can project new images and values. Purposively used, it can be a help in obliterating attitudes and behaviour patterns that are dysfunctional to programmes of modernization.
- Providing ideological articulation can promote the development of national consciousness and can help people see their needs and their problems from a national perspective. (BEd 2nd Year Meaning of Modernization Study Material Notes)
This can stimulate the creation of a national consensus at least on major issues.
- Education provides a highway to the elite status of education. The educands provide a reference model to the masses, who, in imitation of the former, take the First step away from tradition. Modernization elites are almost always the products of modern or semi-modern school/university systems. (BEd 2nd Year Meaning of Modernization Study Material Notes)
- Problems. Solving leadership scientists and technicians, management experts and administration with the requisite knowledge and skills. can only be expected to emerge out of the educational system. A large-scale programme of modernization demand specialists of several types at different levels and look to the educational system for a steady flow of technocrats, planners and managers to operate them. (BEd 2nd Year Meaning of Modernization Study Material Notes)