BEd 2nd Year Meaning of Naturalism Study Material Notes
BEd 2nd Year Meaning of Naturalism Study Material Notes: A2zNotes Presents study material Long Question Answer Notes by the Latest BEd Syllabus for Philosophical and Socialogical Perspective of Education. A Collection of Question-Answers compiled and Edited by A2zNotes Well Experienced Authors Based on Latest Two-Years BEd Curriculum. Here in this post, we will provide you with Long Questions and Answers for the Definition and Meaning of Naturalism, Metaphysics of Naturalism, Epistemology & Logic of Naturalism, Axiology & Ethics of Naturalism, and Fundamental Principles of Naturalism.
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Meaning and Definition of Naturalism
Naturalism is that school of western philosophy which considers nature as the basic element of this universe and the creator and cause of this universe. Like realism, naturalism to has its roots in the past. In this context, we can mention those philosophers who have been mentioned in the context of realism. The Greek philosopher, Thales (640-550 BC) attempted to prove the origin of this world from water (a matter of nature). (BEd 2nd Year Meaning of Naturalism Study Material Notes)
So this view of his can be considered to be the beginning of realism as well as naturalism. After him, Anexinenes tried to prove the origin of this world from the air, and because air is also a matter of nature, his ideology can also be considered as the initial form of naturalism, Heraclites considered fire as the basic element of the universe, so he can also be taken as the initial philosopher of naturalism. (BEd 2nd Year Meaning of Naturalism Study Material Notes)
But in the form of an independent philosophy, it was propounded by the Greek philosopher Democritus (460-370 BC). He tried to prove the origin of this universe from the synthesis of atoms, which is known as atomism. But just then Socrates came to the scene in Greece. He proved that the soul and God are the basic elements of this universe. His pupil, Plato went a step forward to describe the world as a mere manifestation of ideas and thus challenged the very existence of matter and nature.
After Plato, whatever philosophical thinking took place in the western world until the fifteenth century, was * based on Plato’s idealism. But when the scientific discoveries during the fifteenth century acquainted us with the real form of nature (matter), it was natural for the philosophers to be attracted to it. In the form of an independent philosophy, naturalism developed during the fifteenth century. Comte, Bacon, Hobbs, Darwin and Lamark are considered to be the early naturalistic thinkers. They planted naturalism well by the seventeenth century. (BEd 2nd Year Meaning of Naturalism Study Material Notes)
Metaphysics of Naturalism
According to the Greek philosopher Democritus, this world is created from the synthesis of atoms. This view of his was proved by scientist Dalton in modern times through scientific experiments. He made out the fact that different matter is made up by the synthesis of different atoms, and this world is created by the synthesis of different matter. This ideology of his is called Atomism.
Scientists, in the twentieth century, divided atoms into three parts (electrons, protons and neutrons). They clarified that the basic elements of the universe are not atoms but these particles of power. This ideology is called the Naturalism of Physical Sciences.
Some naturalists look at the whole world in the form of a machine. They consider man to be a machine who remains active as a result of external stimuli. They consider all human behaviour as based on his nervous, gland and muscle systems. This ideology is called Mechanical Naturalism. (BEd 2nd Year Meaning of Naturalism Study Material Notes)
The famous scientist, Darwin of England, propounded the Theory of Evolution according to which species are not created severally but magnate by a series of development. (BEd 2nd Year Meaning of Naturalism Study Material Notes)
He clarified that at first, the simple species took birth, then from the simple species plants, then from plants, low-class creatures, from low-class creatures the animals, and from animals man was formed.
This thought of his is called Biological Naturalism. All naturalists agree as far as the soul and God are concerned. They accept the soul as an active element and, in their view, there is no existence of God. In their view, nature is the ultimate reality itself.
Epistemology and Logic of Naturalism
Naturalists consider the knowledge of nature as real. Now the question arises what is nature? In general usage by nature is meant that creation which develops spontaneously and in the creation of which man has no role; such as earth, ocean, mountains, sky, rivers, sun, moon, stars, clouds, rains and vegetation, etc.; but in the philosophical view, nature is that basic element of the universe that was in existence in the beginning, is in existence at present and will remain in existence in future too.
It also includes all those activities that occur according to definite rules. For example, water, ice and vapour are natural substances, they are created from similar elements (hydrogen and Oxygen). We know that water transforms into ice and vapour or vice versa according to definite laws. Naturalism considers the basic elements of substances and the laws of their transformation as nature and their knowledge as real knowledge. (BEd 2nd Year Meaning of Naturalism Study Material Notes)
All this knowledge is got by physical sciences and the knowledge of physical sciences can be acquired by organs of action and sense organs. Naturalists consider the knowledge acquired by sense organs as real. So man should observe and test himself for the acquisition of true knowledge. (BEd 2nd Year Meaning of Naturalism Study Material Notes)
Naturalists believe that the mind and brain function like coordinators in the acquisition of knowledge.
Axiology and Ethics of Naturalism
Naturalism considers natural substances and activities as real. Naturalists clarify that man has his own nature and this nature is pure in itself, man gets happiness in behaving according to it and becomes sad if he behaves contrary to it.
So man should behave according to his nature. They do not want to bind man to any type of social laws and spiritual bounds. They give him the freedom to behave according to his own nature. They argue that the tasks by which a man derives happiness, he likes to do them, and he relinquishes the tasks that make him sad. Thus, naturalists favour only natural morality.
Definition of Naturalism
There are several forms of naturalism, but they have great similarities in existence. On the basis of that similarity, James Ward has defined it in the following way:
Naturalism is that doctrine which separates nature from God, subordinates spirit to matter and sets up unchangeable laws as supreme. –James Ward
But this definition does not make out the real form of naturalism. Naturalism should be defined in view of its metaphysics, epistemology, logic axiology and ethics as follows:
Naturalism is that school of Western philosophy which considers this universe as the creation of nature and accepts the material world as the real world. It does not accept the existence of God and considers the soul as the consciousness produced in the matter and propounds that the ultimate aim of human life is to live happily, which can be achieved by following natural laws.
Fundamental Principles of Naturalism
If we want to organize the metaphysics, epistemology, logic, axiology and ethics of naturalism in the form of principles, we can do it in the following way:
1. This Universe is a Natural Creation: According to naturalists, nature is both the creator and cause of this universe. The coming together of natural elements makes matter, and the synthesis of matters creates the universe, and their disintegration is its end. The process of this integration and disintegration occurs according to some definite laws. This making and dismantling are called natural change. For example, the change of water into ice or vapour is a natural change.
In this context, the best example is that of the growth of a tree from seed and that of seed from a tree. Other matters in the world change their form according to certain natural laws. (BEd 2nd Year Meaning of Naturalism Study Material Notes)
2. Only this Material World is True, there is no other Spiritual World beyond it: Naturalists consider this material world true. They clarify that we perceive this material world by our sense organs, so it is true. On the contrary, we cannot perceive the spiritual world by sense organs, so it is untrue. According to naturalism, the matter is not destroyed, it only transforms its form. In that case, how can the material world be considered mortal and untrue? (BEd 2nd Year Meaning of Naturalism Study Material Notes)
3. Soul is a Conscious Element Produced from Matter: Naturalists do not accept the spiritual form of the soul. They clarify that this universe is made by nature, and the function of this creation occurs according to certain laws; it is false to think of any spiritual power (God) behind it. The question arises of how the conscious element (soul) develops in the beings.
In this context, naturalism clarifies that natural matters are formed by the synthesis of atoms, and atoms are active, due to their being taking birth and consciousness developing in the being; idealists consider this consciousness element as the soul. Naturalists argue that this soul is produced from matter, so it is also destroyed by the destruction of the body.
4. Man is the best Creature of the Universe: Naturalism does not consider man to be complete from birth, but accepts him to be the best creature in the world. According, to the naturalism of physical sciences, man is the best matter in the world, according to mechanical naturalism, man is the best machine, and according to biological naturalism, he is the best animal in the world. It is improper to consider man only matter or machine. (BEd 2nd Year Meaning of Naturalism Study Material Notes)
According to biologists, there are certain faculties in man as compared to animals, by which he has succeeded in rising above other animals. For it, they pay special significance to the intelligence of man, According to them, intelligence is the production of the brain, and a brain is a group of highly developed nervous systems. (BEd 2nd Year Meaning of Naturalism Study Material Notes)
5. Human Development is a Natural Activity: Biological naturalists believe in the evolution theory. According to them, man has been developed from a low-class being to a high-class being. Like other beings, man also takes birth with certain innate powers. The form of these innate powers is natural. (BEd 2nd Year Meaning of Naturalism Study Material Notes)
On being stimulated by the external environment, these powers become active and the behaviour of man is determined. No spiritual powers work in this evolution of man. (BEd 2nd Year Meaning of Naturalism Study Material Notes)