BEd 2nd Year Meaning of Socialization Study Material Notes
BEd 2nd Year Meaning of Socialization Study Material Notes: A2zNotes Presents study material Long Question Answer Notes by the Latest BEd Syllabus for Philosophical and Socialogical Perspective of Education. A Collection of Question-Answers compiled and Edited by A2zNotes Well Experienced Authors Based on Latest Two-Years BEd Curriculum. Here in this post, we will provide you with Long Questions and Answers for the Definition, and Meaning of Socialization, Socialization and Cultural Development, Factors of Socialization, and Agencies of Socialization.
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Meaning and Definition of Socialization
Socialization is the process by which an individual learns the lifestyle of his society and adjusts to it. In the society in which an individual takes birth and lives, he has to learn the language, lifestyle and behavioural manners and customs and traditions of that society. Without having learned them, he cannot adjust to that society and cannot become its member.
He takes much time in learning it. A few days after his birth, he begins to learn the language, lifestyle, eating and conduct manners of his society, and as he grows, he learns the customs and traditions of the society and conducts himself accordingly to adjust to it.
Generally, an individual is a member of several societies and in order to adjust to any one of these societies, he has to learn its language and behavioural norms. This whole process is called socialization by sociologists.
Drever has defined it in the following way:
Socialization is the process by which the individual is adopted to his social environment by attaining social conformity and becomes a recognized, cooperating and efficient member of it.
But this definition only mentions the outcome of the process of socialization, without having discussed its form. Secondly, the scope of its outcome has been made very broad, that by it he becomes a recognized, cooperating and efficient member.
In our view, the process of socialization should be defined in the following way:
Socialization is the process in which there is interaction. between individual and individual and individual and society, and an individual learns the language, lifestyle, conduct manners, customs and traditions of the society and thus adjusts to that society.
Socialization and Cultural Development
Generally, people do not distinguish between socialization and cultural development. The chief cause of this error is that in both of them the individual has to learn the language, lifestyle and conduct manners and customs and traditions of that particular society; but there is a difference between the two. (BEd 2nd Year Meaning of Socialization Study Material Notes)
The first distinction between the two is that the scope of socialization includes only language, lifestyle, eating manners, behavioural norms, customs and traditions; while cultural development also includes arts and skills, music and dance, language and literature, religion and philosophy, ideals, beliefs and values in it. (BEd 2nd Year Meaning of Socialization Study Material Notes)
The second major distinction is that an individual can become a member of several societies at the same time; such as that of Jain society in the name of caste and religion, that of the Congress party in the name of politics, that of higher class on the basis of economic status, that of Lions Club in the name of the club, and that of Cricket Association in the name of game, and so on.
In order to adjust there in these social groups, he has to learn the language and terminologies being used in them and has to learn their rules. On the contrary, in cultural development, he has to learn only about his own culture.
The above second distinction makes out another distinction that an individual can become a member of several societies, but his culture remains only one. (BEd 2nd Year Meaning of Socialization Study Material Notes)
The fourth distinction is that the behavioural norms adopted for socialization remain limited to a particular society and are temporary in nature, but the cultural behavioural norms are permanent in nature and are followed under all circumstances; such as, the members of the Scouts and Guides society welcome one another by shaking the left hand, but they follow their own cultural rules at other places.
The fourth distinction makes out the fifth one, and that is, that socialization is a temporary process; the behavioural norms change with the change in society; but cultural development is permanent in itself, it influences our conduct and thoughts at all places and under all circumstances. And the greatest distinction between the two processes is that socialization occurs at the intellectual level, while cultural development is related to the approval of the heart. (BEd 2nd Year Meaning of Socialization Study Material Notes)
Factors of Socialization
Sociologists have studied the process of socialization minutely. According to them, there are four elements, components or factors of the process of socialization. These factors are:
- Biological Characteristics: Man has his own biological characteristics; he takes birth with certain basic instincts, emotions, general innate tendencies, senses and brain. His socialization occurs on their bases, In their absence, his socialization cannot occur. (BEd 2nd Year Meaning of Socialization Study Material Notes)
- Social Interactions: Another essential element for the socialization of man is his social interaction. Until and unless a person comes in contact with others there can be no interaction between them, and then he can learn neither the language nor the behavioural norms of the society. By learning these he changes from a biological being to a social being.
- Definite Outcome of Social Interactions: It is also essential for socialization that the interaction between individual and individual, and individual and society has definite outcomes; socially-approved behaviour cannot be learnt by meaningless interactions. (BEd 2nd Year Meaning of Socialization Study Material Notes)
- Approval-Disapproval of the Outcomes: When there is an action, there will be an outcome. A child can learn thievery by living among thieves, but when he comes to know that this task is not socially approved and doing it he cannot adjust to society, then he will not do that task. Learning socially approved behaviour to conduct accordingly is called socialization.
Agencies of Socialization
In the society in which a child takes birth and grows, he learns the language, behavioural norms and customs and traditions of that society and accordingly conducts himself to adjust to it. He learns all this while living in his family, neighbourhood, peer group, caste and community. Such behaviour is moulded or reformed in schools. All these are called agencies of socialization. We shall discuss the important agencies that affect the socialization of the child. (BEd 2nd Year Meaning of Socialization Study Material Notes)
Family is the foremost and most important institution that affects the socialization of the child. The child opens his eyes in the lap of his mother, and after that, he comes into contact with his family members. He imitates the family members to learn their language and behavioural norms. He repeats the tasks that are approved by his family, and he keeps away from doing those that are forbidden in the family, and thus he adjusts himself in the family. These attributes developed in childhood are very stable. Thus, the family is the foremost and most effective agency of socialization of the child. (BEd 2nd Year Meaning of Socialization Study Material Notes)
[ii] Neighbourhood and Peer Groups
At the age of two-three years, the child walks out of his family to mingle with the families in the neighbourhood. Now his scope becomes larger than the family. He plays and quarrels with the children of his age group. These children sometimes love each other and sometimes quarrel; sometimes cooperate and sometimes hinder others’ tasks. Their quarrels are very temporary in nature. They make up immediately and begin to play again. (BEd 2nd Year Meaning of Socialization Study Material Notes)
The children learn to defend their rights and do their duties, they learn to behave, cooperate and struggle with others, and learn to bear with their criticism and adjust to different social circumstances. The children with leadership qualities become the leader of the group. These children have their own world and their own unique system of this world. The socialization of the children occurs in a very natural manner in this environment. (BEd 2nd Year Meaning of Socialization Study Material Notes)
Caste is also a chief agency of socialization. Family members are bound by the limits of the caste. They adopt the customs and traditions of their own caste. The child takes part in the caste programmes with his family members; he comes to know the behavioural norms and customs and traditions of the caste and accepts them to adjust to his caste.
A community is a large social group. It comprises all of family, neighbourhood, castes and several other social groups, organizations and institutions. We have already discussed some of them in the outgoing paragraphs, but it is necessary to discuss community because a community is a whole unit in itself and is the creator of all these groups, organizations and institutions. The socialization of the children in a community of different civilizations and cultures and in a community of one language, one civilization and one culture is different. (BEd 2nd Year Meaning of Socialization Study Material Notes)
The children in the community with one language, custom, tradition and culture, come in contact with the members of that community speaking the same language, and have similar behavioural norms and customs and traditions, though they come from different families. As a result, the direction of their socialization is the same. (BEd 2nd Year Meaning of Socialization Study Material Notes)
On the contrary, the children of a community having different languages, religions and cultures find themselves in different environments. It is true that the attributes of family and caste are increasable, yet different civilizations and cultures of the community have an effect on the children. Cultural difference in the community is an impediment to the socialization of the child.
The agencies of socialization that we have discussed so far, child’s socialization in them occurs accidentally and naturally. This socialization is provided intellectual basis in the schools. Asked truly, whatever socialization that takes place in the family, neighbourhood, peer groups, caste and community; the schools provide it stability by giving intellectual basis to it.