BEd 2nd Year Meaning of Values Study Material Notes
BEd 2nd Year Meaning of Values Study Material Notes: A2zNotes Presents study material Long Question Answer Notes by the Latest BEd Syllabus for Philosophical and Socialogical Perspective of Education. A Collection of Question-Answers compiled and Edited by A2zNotes Well Experienced Authors Based on Latest Two-Years BEd Curriculum. Here in this post, we will provide you with Long Questions and Answers for the Definition, and Meaning of Values, Nature of Values, Value System, Value Conflict, Value, Morality and Character, and Classification of Values.
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Meaning and Definition of Values
The etymological meaning of ‘value’ is utility, desirability, and significance. Generally, the ideals to which weightage is given in society, and by which the behaviour of the persons of that society is governed and controlled, are called the values of that society. However, different disciplines have taken them in different forms and no universal concept has been formed about it as yet.
In philosophy, the attitude towards human life is termed value. According to Vedic philosophies, the ultimate aim of human life is emancipation, and according to Charvak and Ajivak’s philosophies, it is physical pleasure. From the viewpoint of Indian philosophers, emancipation and worldly, pleasure are two different values. So the people having faith in emancipation have spiritual-oriented behaviour, while those believing in worldly pleasure have self-centred behaviour.
In theology, moral laws are considered to be values. We know that each religion has its certain moral laws and the followers of that religion have to follow them in all fields of life. When these laws begin to control and direct their behaviour, they become their values. For example, in Jainism, non-violence has been taken to be the supreme moral law, and the followers of Jainism are expected to follow this rule in all fields of action; for them, non-violence is the supreme value.
Anthropologists accept values as cultural features. In their view, culture and values are one, a culture is identified by its values. For example, the Hindu culture is a culture of four purusharthas (dharma, artha, kama and moksha) and five mahavritas (truth, non-violence, non-stealing, non-hoarding and celibacy); generally, on the basis of these, the behaviour of people of Hindu society is governed, therefore they are the values of Hindu society. Let us take another example from Muslim culture. It is a culture of equality and brotherhood, generally, the behaviour of the people of Muslim culture is directed on this basis, so they are the values of Muslim society. (BEd 2nd Year Meaning of Values Study Material Notes)
In the present age, psychologists and sociologists have contemplated values the most. Psychologists have taken values in the form of interests, attitudes and liking of man. According to Flink, the norms that we like and attach significance to, on the basis of which we determine our behaviour, are our values. In his words:
Values are normative standards by which human beings are influenced in their choice among the alternative courses of action which they perceive.
Nature of Values
At first glance, four facts are made out about values from their concept —first, value is an abstract concept; second, they guide and control an individual’s behaviour, third, they are socially approved, and fourth, there are several beliefs, ideals, principles, moral laws and behavioural nouns of a society, the individual attaches more significance to some of them and less to some of them; the more significance he attaches to them, the more powerful values they are for him.
From the above discussion, the following facts are revealed about the nature of values:
- Value is an abstract concept. It is related to the inner self of man.
- Value is the weightage given by individuals to any socially approved belief, ideal, principle, moral law or behavioural norm.
- The beliefs, ideals, principles, moral laws and behavioural norms of a society are the outcomes of its prolonged experiences. The same thing should apply to values too. (BEd 2nd Year Meaning of Values Study Material Notes)
- The development of values in an individual takes place due to his participation in different social activities (social, cultural, religious political and economic).
- The first step of the concept of value is cognitive, second affective and third conative. At first, an individual accepts society’s beliefs, ideals, principles, moral laws and behavioural norms without any thought, but when he becomes prudent, he starts to think about their rationality. With the commencement of this thinking, the process of formation of new values starts in him. Now what appears to him proper are attached to his emotion, and after they are attached to his emotion, they start to affect his behaviour. Until they affect his behaviour, they cannot be called values.
- Values depend on the liking of individuals. An individual may attach more weightage to a certain belief, ideal, principle, moral law or behavioural norm; while less to others.
- Values guide and control man’s behaviour.
- Values help man to decide between right and wrong, good and evil, doable and undoable.
- People get satisfaction by following their values. People can even sacrifice their lives in the defence of values.
- Values for different societies are different, values are their marks of identity.
- All individuals, societies and nations defend their values and also make a change in them if needed.
The society in which an individual life has to accept its values, but it depends on him how far he likes a value or the amount of weight he attaches to it. Living in society he develops several values, and his behaviour is influenced by all these values. The system of several values that have developed in a particular person is called a value system. (BEd 2nd Year Meaning of Values Study Material Notes)
All values are arranged in the value system in the order of their preferences. This order of preference is helpful in the situation of value conflict. An individual who is unable to give an order of preference to his values is unable to decide his behaviour in the case of value conflict. (BEd 2nd Year Meaning of Values Study Material Notes)
When an individual faces a conflict between two or more values in determining his behaviour, it is called value conflict. For example, take the case of a cow being chased by a butcher. At a turn, he lost sight of the cow and is unable to decide which way the cow has gone. Now he asks a person at the turning about the direction in which the cow has gone, Now that person has a problem.
If he tells the truth, it results in violence and if he tells a lie, he falls back from the principle of truth. It is evident that a person attaching more weightage to the truth will speak the truth, and the person attaching more weightage to non-violence will tell a lie, and the person who is entangled in value conflict will not be able to decide his behaviour.
Value, Morality and Character
Value, morality and character are all related to human behaviour, so it becomes difficult to distinguish among them, yet they are different concepts. (BEd 2nd Year Meaning of Values Study Material Notes)
In the viewpoint of theologists, religious laws are moral laws and following them is morality. From the viewpoint of sociologists, social rule. are moral laws and following them is morality. Our Indian society is a religious society, therefore, in our view, following social and religious laws is morality. (BEd 2nd Year Meaning of Values Study Material Notes)
Character is that force which assists us in the following morality. The more force of character is there in a person, the more strongly he follows the moral laws, (BEd 2nd Year Meaning of Values Study Material Notes)
Value is different from these concepts. Though most of the values are moral laws in their origin, yet if we look carefully, we find that moral laws are external and values are internal. We follow morality due to external pressure and follow values due to internal pressure. Moreover, all values are not moral by nature. The basis of certain political values is altogether immoral. In politics, the appropriateness of means is not considered in the realization of objectives. (BEd 2nd Year Meaning of Values Study Material Notes)
Classification of Values
In primitive times, man lived like an animal. He had to struggle for life then. Only the fittest survived at that time. So the man had to increase his strength. Possibly, the struggle and strength would have been the life values of his life, then. Gradually, the man moved from natural life to social life, social life in which. love, sympathy and cooperation were important in place of struggle strength, in which the lives of weak people also became secure. (BEd 2nd Year Meaning of Values Study Material Notes)
We can term love, sympathy and cooperation as the basic social laws, ideals, principles, behavioural norms or values. As we progressed, the form of society grew complex; its different aspects-social, cultural, religious, political and economic developed. Besides, all societies developed beliefs, ideals, principles, moral laws and behavioural norms pertaining to these aspects.
Generally, we call them values. Most scholars classify. values on the basis of these aspects; such as social values, cultural values, Religious values, political values and economic values. But values are classified differently in different disciplines. We present some of the important classifications. (BEd 2nd Year Meaning of Values Study Material Notes)
Indian philosophers have classified values into two classes only:
- Spiritual values.
- Materialistic values
By spiritual values, they meant those values that direct our spiritual thought and behaviour; such as dharma, artha, kama and moksha; and by materialistic values they meant such values that are related to our worldly life and that provide direction to our social behaviour; such as love, sympathy, cooperation and patriotism. (BEd 2nd Year Meaning of Values Study Material Notes)
In the context of this classification, we would like to submit that most of our spiritual values are related to our material life; such as love, service, truth, non-violence, non-stealing, non-hoarding and celibacy, and honesty and dutifulness. Secondly, we would like to submit that there are several such materialistic values without following which we cannot progress towards spirituality; such as love, sympathy and cooperation. So this type of classification is not complete in itself. (BEd 2nd Year Meaning of Values Study Material Notes)
The American logician Lewis has classified values into four classes:
- Intrinsic values
- Extrinsic values
- Inherent values
- Instrumental values