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BEd 2nd Year Non Formal Education Study Material Notes

BEd 2nd Year Non Formal Education Study Material Notes

BEd 2nd Year Non Formal Education Study Material Notes

BEd 2nd Year Non Formal Education Study Material Notes: A2zNotes Presents study material Long Question Answer Notes by the Latest BEd Syllabus for Philosophical and Socialogical Perspective of Education. A Collection of Question-Answers compiled and Edited by A2zNotes Well Experienced Authors Based on Latest Two-Years BEd Curriculum.

Here in this post, we will provide you with Long Questions and Answers for the Definition and Meaning of Non-Formal Education, Non-Formal Education and Adult Education, Nature of Non-Formal Education, Advantages and Objectives of Non-Formal Education, Persons Benefits by Non-Formal Education, and Agencies of Non-Formal Education.

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BEd 2nd Year Non Formal Education Study Material Notes
BEd 2nd Year Non-Formal Education Study Material Notes

Non-Formal Education

In July 1979 the Central Board of Secondary Education, New Delhi, started the Open School- the first of its kind in the country. It is an institution set up to bring flexibility and openness to the educational system and to extend educational opportunities to the weaker and disadvantaged sections of society. (BEd 2nd Year Non Formal Education Study Material Notes)

The main objectives of the Open School are the following:

To offer a parallel non-formal system as an alternative to formal schooling.

To provide the opportunity of education to out-of-school learners, school drop-outs, working adults, housewives and learners from disadvantaged sections of society living in remote areas of the country.

To offer bridge/preparatory courses for enabling learners to take up secondary level courses.

To offer Secondary, Senior Secondary, Technical, Vocational and life enrichment courses through distance teaching methods.

To promote an open distance learning system of education through research, publication and information dissemination.

This is an example of non-formal education.

Non-Formal Education is an arrangement wherein flexibility is the keyword. Such a system is an open one with regards to various aspects of education, i.e., admissions, and curriculum. place of instruction, mode of instruction and the time and duration of instruction. Various examples of such a system are the Open School and Open University, Open Learning and the Correspondence Courses.

Definition of Non-Formal Education

Non-Formal Education includes adult education, continuing education and job-education, etc. Philip Coombs talked about it in 1968. However, until 1970 it had not been defined. (BEd 2nd Year Non Formal Education Study Material Notes)

Non-Formal Education is a new concept for an ancient phenomenon. Some of Its definitions are as follows.

  1. Coombs and Ahmed (1974). “Any organized, systematic, educational activity carried on outside the framework of the formal system to provide selected types of learning to particular sub-groups in the population, adults as well as children.”
  2. Lal Bella (1975). Non-Formal Education refers to “organized out-of-school educational programmes designed to provide specific learning experiences for the specific target population.”
  3. Illich and Freire. Non-Formal Education is anti-formal education.
  4. Moti Lal Sharma. ”In brief one could say that non-formal education is an active, critical, dialectical educational programme which aims at helping people to learn, to help themselves, to place them in consciously critical confrontation with their problems. (BEd 2nd Year Non Formal Education Study Material Notes)
    Developing integrated authentic human beings who can contribute to the development of society is the aim of Non-Formal Education. In this not only the individuals but also the total social system learns, adding up to a true learning society.”

Non-Formal Education is the “missing ingredient” in accelerated social and economic development schemes that do not work. Therefore, it has its own valid claim to reality. It is deliberate, planned, staffed, financially supported life formal education. It is functional, unrestricted as to time and place and in general responsive to needs like informal education. It is much more responsive to needs and change. (BEd 2nd Year Non Formal Education Study Material Notes)

Thus, it is a more effective tool for rural development. It unlocks the doors of development plans.

According to Malcolm A. Adiseshiah, “Non-Formal education should be marketable and vocationalised. It should lay emphasis on the self-learning pattern.”

According to H.S.S. Lawrence: “Non-Formal Education system was no rival to the formal educational system but it was complementary to the latter. The common ingredients in both should be identified and an integrated system evolved.”

Non-Formal Education and Adult Education

Explaining the difference between non-formal and adult education writes Anil Bordia, “The New Non-Formal Education Plan differs from previous adult education programmes in that it provides for adequate administrative and resource support and emphasizes need-based curricula and teaching and learning materials; but it is unique in emphasizing evaluation at all stages on a continuing basis. All training programmes and teaching and learning materials are to be pretested and also subjected to impact studies.”

Nature of Non-Formal Education

After World War II, in the post-colonial period new nations, one after another, scrambled for expanded and improved formal education. By the late sixties, there was a growing uneasiness that expansion in the facilities in formal education was not the whole answer. The traditional two-fold categorisation of education into formal and informal education leaves a big gap.

Studies by Philip Coombs and other revealed that as societies developed a third kind of education emerged which could be labelled as non-formal education. This non-formal education accounts for much of the highly functional, development and short-term related need of a rapidly changing society. (BEd 2nd Year Non Formal Education Study Material Notes)

Advantages of Non-Formal Education

To sum up, Non-Formal education is needed on account of the following advantages :

  • Universalisation or primary education.
  • Eradication of adult literacy.
  • Meeting the omissions of formal education.
  • 0 Meeting the enormous and imperative challenges of democratic set-up.
  • Enabling the pupils to learn and earn.
  • Enabling those students to study who had to discontinue formal
  • education owing to pecuniary and other circumstances.
  • Enabling the students in geographically remote areas to get the education
  • because formal education cannot be within their easy reach.
  • Enabling individuals to refresh and update their knowledge.
  • Rectifying the educational imbalance between those who live in villages and those living in towns.
  • Providing educational facilities to socially and economically neglected sectors of society.

Objectives of Non-Formal Education

Following are the three sets or objectives of Non-Formal education:

  • The immediate objective is the removal of illiteracy.
  • The middle-range objective is the application of ‘new’ knowledge to resolve economic, cultural and social problems.
  • The long-range objective is to provide for lifelong education.

Types of Non-Formal Education Programmes

  • Adult Functional Literacy Programmes.
  • Correspondence Courses.
  • Open School Studies.
  • Satellite Instructional Television Programme.
  • Programme for drop-outs in the age group 6-14

Person Benefits from Non-Formal Education

Non-Formal Education is particularly useful for the following categories of persons :

  1. People of all ages. Those who never had the opportunity to follow any formal education programme.
  2. Students. Those who are not in a position to complete primary, middle or secondary school.
  3. Learners. Learners of different stages of education feel the need for deeper and more comprehensive knowledge in a subject of particular interest. (BEd 2nd Year Non Formal Education Study Material Notes)
  4. Labourers. In both urban and rural areas young workers, and small farmers. landless labourers, small entrepreneurs, etc., who need up-to-date knowledge related to their jobs particularly related to the latest technological improvements.
  5. Educated unemployed. Unemployed educated persons of various, age-groups whose no-relevant education needs to be made more relevant in order to increase their chances of employment. (BEd 2nd Year Non Formal Education Study Material Notes)
  6. Graduates, professionals, and intellectuals. Those who need a refreshment or orientation to make themselves up-to-date in their knowledge. (BEd 2nd Year Non Formal Education Study Material Notes)
  7. Other Persons. Those who require programmes for personal satisfaction like recreation, leisure time activities, cultural or artistic programmes, etc. (BEd 2nd Year Non Formal Education Study Material Notes)

Agencies of Non-Formal Education

The various agencies for organising programmes for non-formal education are as follows:

  • Institutions for formal education.
  • 0 Special agencies for non-formal education such as Nehru Yuvak Kendras,
  • training centres in factories, public libraries, centres of correspondence education, etc.
  • A voluntary non-governmental organization like clubs and societies.
  • Radio and television.

Non-Formal education is one of the modes of education, others are formal and informal. Therefore, non-formal education ought to be perceived and designed in coordination with formal and informal systems. It will prove an insufficient and ineffective mechanism for solving complex problems or for achieving concrete goals if organised in isolation.

Again, it must not be limited to the imparting of basic skills only. It must be designed as an integrated system in the context of the total socio-economic environment. (BEd 2nd Year Non Formal Education Study Material Notes)

To make it effective in the modern societal context, a more integrated community-based programme of innovation and change is needed to which various forms of education may contribute. This requires filling the gaps between the learning systems and the community’s needs. (BEd 2nd Year Non Formal Education Study Material Notes)

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