BEd 2nd Year Philosophical and Educational Thoughts of Giju Bhai Study Notes
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Philosophical Thought of Giju Bhai
Giju Bhai was born on 15 November 1885 at Chital village in Gujarat. His full name was Girija Shankar Bhagwan Ji Baghela. His father, Bhagwan Ji Baghela started his career as a teacher and later changed to a legal practitioner, but he was a man of religious nature. His mother, Kashiba too was a lady of a religious disposition. It was natural for Giju Bhai to develop a religious disposition in such a family.
Giju Bhai has neither propounded any new philosophy nor explained any existing philosophy; but like all great thinkers, he had his own philosophy of life. We are presenting a glimpse of his philosophy of life. We are presenting his philosophy of life in brief.
Metaphysics of Giju Bhai’s Philosophy
Giju Bhai was a devotee of Lord Shiva. He believed that God is the creator of this universe, and He is its destroyer too. He considered man as the noblest creation of God and said that the ultimate aim of human life is the attainment of God, which can be attained by following religion and morality and devotion to God. (BEd 2nd Year Philosophical and Educational Thoughts of Giju Bhai Study Notes)
Epistemology and Logic of Giju Bhai’s Philosophy
Giju Bhai had taken birth during the Indian renaissance period; it was a time when superstitions were being eliminated and man was coming to know the true knowledge of the material world. Giju Bhai was influenced by the attributes of his family on the one hand, and that of English education on the other. He considered both types of physical and spiritual knowledge as necessary and said that physical knowledge can be attained through external senses and the knowledge of spirituality can be attained by the inner self.
Axiology and Ethics of Giju Bhai’s Philosophy
Giju Bhai considered religion and morality as the basis of human life. In his view, every person should follow the truth. non-violence and honesty, and should practice feelings of love, and affection. mercy, kindness, and well-being for all beings. He did not consider a person devoid of morality as a man. Our country was under foreign rule at that time. We recognized the significance of the national spirit. Giju Bhai expected every person to be devoted to his country.
Educational Thought of Giju Bhai
The educational thought of Giju Bhai is limited to the education of infants. He was much influenced by Dr. Maria Montessori. He also considered Froebel’s kindergarten system in some ways. but he adapted their teaching systems to Indian conditions. His thought pertaining to infant education can be found in his books written by him.
Two of his books are of special significance Diva Swapna and Prathatnik Shala Mein Bhasha Shikslta. The former book has been written in a storytelling way in which a teacher plans his future school. In it, the teacher is none else but Giju Bhai himself. We shall present his thought pertaining to infant education as follows. (BEd 2nd Year Philosophical and Educational Thoughts of Giju Bhai Study Notes)
Concept of Education
Giju Bhai favored the all-around development of man. According to him, true education is that which affects the all-round development of the children. (BEd 2nd Year Philosophical and Educational Thoughts of Giju Bhai Study Notes)
Aims of Education
Giju Bhai has expressed his thought only about infant education. He was aware of the fact that man is a progressive being. He clarified that the foundation for any type of development of man should be laid in infancy: if the foundation is not strong enough, the building can collapse at any time. (BEd 2nd Year Philosophical and Educational Thoughts of Giju Bhai Study Notes)
He was in the favour of all-around development during infancy. He was a man of a religious disposition, so he laid utmost emphasis on the moral development of the children; and on the development of such humanistic qualities as truth. non-violence. love, affection, mercy. renunciation, others’ welfare, cooperation, etc.
Besides, he also emphasized physical and mental development, development of creativity, development of the qualities of able citizenship, and development of national spirit. (BEd 2nd Year Philosophical and Educational Thoughts of Giju Bhai Study Notes)
Curriculum of Education
Giju Bhai was opposed to an examination-centered curriculum for infants. On the contrary, he supported the curriculum which can be developed by experience. (BEd 2nd Year Philosophical and Educational Thoughts of Giju Bhai Study Notes)
He emphasized that the child should learn the language of their environment (family, school, neighborhood, and outside school), music and dance of their environment; drawing objects of their environment, and mathematics used at this level. Besides, he also emphasized following the rules of health. (BEd 2nd Year Philosophical and Educational Thoughts of Giju Bhai Study Notes)
It is clear that he favored such infant education in which the children can learn by themselves and the teacher work only as a guide in the process of learning. (BEd 2nd Year Philosophical and Educational Thoughts of Giju Bhai Study Notes)
Methods of Teaching
Giju Bhai at first opposed teacher-centered and textbook-centered teaching methods (telling method, textbook method, and lecture method). for the infant level and then emphasized the use of Montessori and kindergarten methods for infant education with some changes according to Indian conditions. (BEd 2nd Year Philosophical and Educational Thoughts of Giju Bhai Study Notes)
He supported the teaching principles of Montessori and Froebel (freedom, affectionate treatment, play, scene training, and learning by doing), and said that whatever is to be taught to the children should be taught by the medium of play. stories and dramas, through their organs of action and sense organs and they should be provided opportunities for learning by doing. He also developed learning by doing methods suitable for infants on the basis of the above principles for different subjects and activities. A brief diversion of those is being presented here. (BEd 2nd Year Philosophical and Educational Thoughts of Giju Bhai Study Notes)
Physical Development and Training of Senses: Giju Bhai emphasized physical development and training of senses by the play-way method. According to him, the children should be allowed to play and run freely in an open environment. It would bring up their physical development. Let them do their task themselves (washing their hand and mouth, wearing clothes, shining shoes, serving food and cleansing utensils, etc.) and let them clean the school and furniture, it would strengthen their organs of action.
He has also emphasized the use of apparatus as developed by Montessori for the training of senes. And where such apparatus is not available, he has emphasized giving them free opportunities for the observation of objects and activities in the environment, smell non-harmful objects, taste non-harmful objects, and touch non-harmful objects. In his view, this is the best method of training the senses. .:
Teaching of Mother Tongue: Montessori wanted to teach writing before reading. On the other hand, Froebel wanted to teach reading before writing. Giju Bhai said that no binding should be imposed upon the children, let them learn in play what they can. Let them listen to stories at first and then give them the opportunities for dialogue, and let them see plays and then let them play themselves, and thus teach them oral language. After that teach them letters of the alphabet and reading and writing should go on together. Admire the children if they write well, and give opportunities for their creativity to develop.
Teaching of Mathematics: He made the operants on the basis of the Montessori method for teaching mathematics and provided opportunities to the children for addition and subtraction, etc. The children learn at play by their use.
The teaching of Music: Giju Bhai emphasized that nothing should be imposed upon the children forcibly; they should be given the opportunities to sing and dance, let them sing infant rhymes of their choice, let them dance Dandia, and encourage them by admiring them, make them practice rhythm and steps. (BEd 2nd Year Philosophical and Educational Thoughts of Giju Bhai Study Notes)
The teaching of History and Geography: Incidents of history, should be clarified by stories and geographical facts by nature observation and by the use of globes and maps. (BEd 2nd Year Philosophical and Educational Thoughts of Giju Bhai Study Notes)
Training in Drawing: Alongside the training of organs of action and sense organs allow the children the opportunities to draw the objects in their environment that can be easily drawn. They should know of and guide the children who have done otherwise and thus develop their creative faculties. He considered drawing the suitable mean for the development of children’s creative faculty.
Religious and Moral Education: There should be held a prayer in the school, inspiring events from the life of religious leaders should be told and all teachers should conduct themselves according to religious and moral norms. It would develop religions and morality in the children naturally. (BEd 2nd Year Philosophical and Educational Thoughts of Giju Bhai Study Notes)
Giju Bhai was staunchly opposed to impressionistic discipline. He said that impressionistic discipline hinders the natural development of children. Moreover, this type of discipline is temporary. Therefore, training in the true discipline should be given with the development of self-discipline. He instructed the teachers not to scold, use harsh words or thrash them; rather give them the opportunity to express themselves and work. (BEd 2nd Year Philosophical and Educational Thoughts of Giju Bhai Study Notes)
They will take care of one another’s well-being in an environment of love and affection and will not involve themselves in otherwise conduct, it would develop self-discipline in them. (BEd 2nd Year Philosophical and Educational Thoughts of Giju Bhai Study Notes)
In the viewpoint of Giju Bhai, the profession of teaching is the noblest of all professions in the world. He clarified that while all other professions are related to the present; teaching is related to the past, present, and future; all three of them. He expected much from infant teachers. (BEd 2nd Year Philosophical and Educational Thoughts of Giju Bhai Study Notes)
Infancy is the period of laying the foundation for life. If the foundation is strong, the building will be strong; and this work can be performed by the teachers only when they know of the nature of infants and have an infinite love for the infants; when they know of infant teaching methods, and they are full to the brim with the feelings of love affection, renunciation, others’ well being and dutifulness. (BEd 2nd Year Philosophical and Educational Thoughts of Giju Bhai Study Notes)
Giju Bhai loved children the most. He emphasized making education child-centered and basing the whole infant’s education on interests. aptitudes and needs of the infants. He has emphasized the fact that the children have their own world, they want to live free, play, and jump. ride the horse made of a stick; they want to dance and take interest in listening and telling stories; therefore they should be given opportunities for all these activities. (BEd 2nd Year Philosophical and Educational Thoughts of Giju Bhai Study Notes)
He instructed the teachers to respect the personality of the children and love them. consider them divine beings serve them and treat them so lovely that they go to school smiling and return from there laughing.
Montessori emphasized making infant schools as infant homes where teachers give the children motherly treatment. Froebel compared the schools with gardens where the teachers like gardeners look after the development of children like plants.
As opposed to the two, Giju Bhai has named them a temple of children where the teachers should serve the students as they serve their God. (BEd 2nd Year Philosophical and Educational Thoughts of Giju Bhai Study Notes)
He used to say that beautify the schools like temples. make them the centers of attraction, respect the personality of the children in schools, love them; serve them and give them free opportunities for their development. Never scold them; make the school environment free from fear; present such an environment in the schools that children enter the schools smilingly with new vigor and return from there happily without any tiredness or trouble.
Giju Bhai has considered guardians as an important component of education and has analyzed the duties and responsibilities of the guardians in detail. (BEd 2nd Year Philosophical and Educational Thoughts of Giju Bhai Study Notes)
In his view, teacher and guardian are two interdependent components in a child’s development. So long as they do not come together to make effort for the child’s development, proper development of the child cannot take place. He expected the guardians to follow the moral laws themselves; secondly, they should behave with the children affectionately and not scold them on every other thing; thirdly, they should provide them opportunities to do their work themselves and not scold them for committing an error and school cooperates with them in the ratification of the error affectionately; and fourthly, they should provide opportunities to the child for the manifestation of creativity. (BEd 2nd Year Philosophical and Educational Thoughts of Giju Bhai Study Notes)