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BEd 2nd Year Pragmatism and Education Study Material Notes

BEd 2nd Year Pragmatism and Education Study Material Notes

BEd 2nd Year Pragmatism and Education Study Material Notes

BEd 2nd Year Pragmatism and Education Study Material Notes: A2zNotes Presents study material Long Question Answer Notes by the Latest BEd Syllabus for Philosophical and Socialogical Perspective of Education. A Collection of Question-Answers compiled and Edited by A2zNotes Well Experienced Authors Based on Latest Two-Years BEd Curriculum. Here in this post, we will provide you with Long Questions and Answers for the Definition and Meaning of Pragmatism and Education, Concept of Education, Aims of Education, Curriculum of Education, and Methods of Teaching.

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BEd 2nd Year Pragmatism and Education Study Material Notes
BEd 2nd Year Pragmatism and Education Study Material Notes

Pragmatism and Education

Pragmatism does not believe in any definite truth. This is the reason that it does not determine any of the aims of education, curriculum and teaching methods, etc. It presents only the principles of their construction. A brief discussion of them is presented here.

Concept of Education

According to pragmatists, education is the process of development of man which takes place in the social environment. By it, the culture of a society is preserved, communicated and developed. Besides all those capabilities in man are developed by which he affects his adaptation to his natural and social environment. According to John Dewey:

Education is the development of all those capacities in the individual which will enable him to control his environment and fulfil his possibilities.

Aims of Education

Pragmatists do not believe in any predetermined ideals and values. They clarify that the natural and social environment of man keeps changing and man experiences new things in this changing environment, and constructs new ideals and values; therefore the aims of education cannot be determined. In this context, John Dewey’s statement is worth mentioning. He said that education has no aims of its own, aims are of the persons and there is a great difference in the aims of persons, and as the development of persons takes place, their aims also keep changing. (BEd 2nd Year Pragmatism and Education Study Material Notes)

According to pragmatists, if any aim of education can be determined, then it is this that it should develop such powers in the children that they become able to understand their environment and construct their ideals on the basis of acquired experiences. Dewey has stressed the development of social skills and his pupil Kilpatric has stressed education of democracy. Thus, pragmatists do not determine aims on the basis of ideals, rather they present the creation of different abilities in the children as different aims of education. (BEd 2nd Year Pragmatism and Education Study Material Notes)

In their view, the following abilities should be developed in children with the help of education :

  1. Development of the power to understand the Social Environment, acquire Experiences and determine Ideals, in the children: Man is a social being, he takes birth in society, lives in the society and ends in society. His social environment continues to change at all times. We should use education to develop such abilities in the children by that they are able to understand their environment and adjust to it. (BEd 2nd Year Pragmatism and Education Study Material Notes)

Pragmatists expect a man that would not accept any predetermined ideals and values, rather he would determine his ideals and values on the basis of his own experiences. For it, the children will have to be trained in understanding the problems, finding their solutions, acting, using, drawing inferences and thus determining the ideals and values. According to pragmatists, education should perform this task first. (BEd 2nd Year Pragmatism and Education Study Material Notes)

  1. Development of Dynamism: Pragmatists want to use education to develop in the children the power to understand the changing circumstances and change themselves accordingly and experience their needs and change the environment in order to fulfil their needs. They expect the individual to discover new truths on the basis of new experiences. Man can remain inclined towards development by this. (BEd 2nd Year Pragmatism and Education Study Material Notes)
  2. Development of Social Skill: According to John Dewey, the foremost aim of education should be the development of social skills. He has included leading life according to social behaviour, love, sympathy and cooperation and earning a livelihood in it.
  3. Education of Democratic Life: Pragmatists desire to see man satisfied as a whole. This feeling of theirs has encouraged social attitudes and a democratic political system. Some pragmatists consider the development of democracy as the ultimate aim of education. According to Kilpatric, our schools should be living examples of democracy where children should take part in democratic activities and learn about democratic life. There is only a difference in expression, between John Dewey and Kilpatric. The quality which has been termed as a social skill by Dewey in a social context has been termed as education for democratic life by Kilpatric in a political context. (BEd 2nd Year Pragmatism and Education Study Material Notes)

Curriculum of Education

In the absence of definite aims of education, there arises no question of determining the curriculum. Pragmatists think that the experiences and needs of man continue to change, therefore the curriculum should also keep changing. The thoughts of pragmatists regarding the construction of curriculum are invaluable. These thoughts have now become the principles of curriculum construction. These principles are:

1. Principle of utility: According to Dewey, the children should be imparted the knowledge of only those subjects and activities which are useful to their life. The needs of different children are different, so the knowledge of a subject or activity cannot be useful to all children. It may be useful for a child to gain skills in agriculture while it may be another field for another child. The study of home science is very useful for girls, as it may not be for boys.

It would not be out of place to say that the curriculum should be varied and the children should have the option to select subjects and activities according to their needs. From this viewpoint, different productive activities and vocational education should be included in the curriculum of education. (BEd 2nd Year Pragmatism and Education Study Material Notes)

2. Principle of Interest: According to John Dewey, the attitude of children is dynamic, they should be imparted education according to attitudes and interests. Dewey has described four natural interests interest in talking, interest in exploration or testing, interest in creation and interest in aesthetic expression. (BEd 2nd Year Pragmatism and Education Study Material Notes)

According to Dewey, these natural interests are the natural resources on which the development of children depends. From this view, reading, writing, handicraft and natural science should be given a special place in the curriculum.

3. Principle of Activity: Pragmatists attach great significance to activity According to them the curriculum should be related to the real activities, experiences acquired from these activities and future activities of the children. Dewey considered activity as the basis of the curriculum. In his viewpoint, besides subjects of study, social activities should also be included in the curriculum which affects the social development of the children. (BEd 2nd Year Pragmatism and Education Study Material Notes)

According to Dewey, only those subjects and activities should be included in the curriculum which is related to the real life of the children. According to him, the school is a miniature society, whatever occurs in the school should be related to social life, or else education would become lifeless and useless. Therefore, besides different subjects, sports, social activities and literary and cultural activities should be included in the curriculum. (BEd 2nd Year Pragmatism and Education Study Material Notes)

4. Principle of Experience: Pragmatists attach great importance to experience too. John Dewey considered social experiences as the basis of the curriculum. In his view the educational experiences of the children are constructive. Educational experiences include economic, political, industrial, physical and social conditions of the society. The children acquire new experiences through these educational experiences and develop their previously acquired experiences. So the children should be given full opportunity for self-experience. (BEd 2nd Year Pragmatism and Education Study Material Notes)

5. Principle of Integration: Pragmatists consider knowledge as a unit. According to them, the subjects to be taught to the children and the activities to be performed by them should be presented as a unit, that is, they should be correlated. Pragmatists give the most importance to activity, so they lay emphasis on the development of knowledge of all subjects and training in all activities around the same activity. So, the subjects and activities should be so selected that they are integrated and can be developed through the real activities of life. (BEd 2nd Year Pragmatism and Education Study Material Notes)

Methods of Teaching

Pragmatist John Dewey has considered two components of education-psychological and social. By psychological component is meant the inherent power, interest, aptitude and ability of the learner and by social component is meant his social environment. The development of a child depends on these factors. Pragmatists keep this fact in mind while selecting the teaching method.

Pragmatists lay great emphasis on reality. They have acquainted us with the fact that the children take interest in only those activities by which their aims are realized. Therefore, whatever is taught to them should be related to their present life.

Pragmatists lay most emphasis on activity. They say that the child is active from birth itself, he always involves himself in some activity, and the outcomes of activities are thoughts. Therefore, the child should be allowed to learn by self-experience. According to John Dewey, nothing should be taught directly, rather it should be taught by activity.

Discipline

Pragmatists do not believe in any impressionistic discipline, impressionistic discipline or emancipationist discipline. They attach importance to the social discipline. According to them, discipline is not maintaining order in the school by external pressure on the children. Discipline in school means that the children take part in the School’s social activities of their free volition and gain as many experiences as may be possible. For it, they do not consider it necessary to give any type of orders to the children, they give importance to activity. (BEd 2nd Year Pragmatism and Education Study Material Notes)

In this context, John Dewey says to present a suitable social environment in the schools and allow the children to perform purposeful activities in the social environment. Taking part in collective activities would help the children in the sublimation of instincts and it would create a discipline of its own type. He has termed it ‘self-discipline’. He believed that if children are imparted education according to their interests, aptitude and needs, there would be no problem with discipline.

Secondly, John Dewey laid stress on freedom. He cautioned too. According to him, children cannot be allowed to have so much freedom that may be detrimental to social interests. Each child should be given the opportunity for his development keeping society in view. For the solution to the problem of discipline in schools, John Dewey considered ‘social pressure’ as the best means. He supported social morality. (BEd 2nd Year Pragmatism and Education Study Material Notes)

Teacher

Pragmatists are not in favour of giving instructions to children. They want that the children should discover the knowledge on their own and the teachers should play the role of active observer and guide in the discovery of this knowledge. The teacher should provide such an environment for the children that they are able to take proper decisions.

It is the duty of the teacher to become sensitive to the problems of children and make them active in finding solutions to their problems in life at all times. The teacher is not only the creator of the high social environment in school, but he himself is part of the environment. He should be very cautious all the time and should behave with the children with love and sympathy.

Student

Pragmatists are in favour of the development of individuals and society both. They respect the individuality of the child and want to give him the free opportunity for his development according to his interest, aptitude, ability and needs so that he is able to attain the highest development of his individual abilities and benefit society in maximum measure. They provide the children with free opportunities for development, but this development should take place in the social context only.

School

Pragmatists oppose traditional schools because the children are given only predetermined ideals in them. In their view, the school should be a lively laboratory for the children where they work, observe, experience and discover their ideals in the real social environment.

According to John Dewey, a good school is one in which moral education is not imparted in the form of orders but rather is imparted on the basis of social activities. In his own words, “School is a miniature society.” So artificiality should be kept away from the schools and the children should be given opportunities to solve problems related to their life. Dewey has laid much stress on the cooperation among family, community and school. (BEd 2nd Year Pragmatism and Education Study Material Notes)

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