BEd 2nd Year Social Change Study Material Notes
BEd 2nd Year Social Change Study Material Notes: A2zNotes Presents study material Long Question Answer Notes by the Latest BEd Syllabus for Philosophical and Socialogical Perspective of Education. A Collection of Question-Answers compiled and Edited by A2zNotes Well Experienced Authors Based on Latest Two-Years BEd Curriculum. Here in this post, we will provide you with Long Questions and Answers for the Definition, and Meaning of Social Change, Social Change and Cultural Change, and Factors affecting Social Change.
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Meaning and Definition of Social Change
Each society has its own unique structure, behavioural norms and manners of accomplishing social tasks; and there occurs a continuous change in its structure, behavioural norms and working manners. It is another thing that this change is at a slow rate in some societies, while at a normal or rapid rate in others. The process is called a social change in sociological terminology.
In the words of Gillin and Gillin
We may define social change as a variation from the accepted modes of life. -Gillin and Gillin
Jenson has also included the change occurring in thoughts besides working manners. In his words:
Social change may be defined as modification in the ways of doing and thinking of people.
MacIver and Page have defined social change as the change in social relationships. They have clarified that:
…our direct concern as sociologists is with social relationships. It is the change in these which alone we shall regard as social change.
However, social relationships are seen as social behaviour. In our view, social change should be defined as follows:
Social change is meant to change the structure and behavioural norms and working methods of society.
Social change the Cultural Change
Some sociologists do not distinguish between social change and cultural change. According to Dawson and Gastis, cultural change is social change because all cultures are social in their origin, meaning and use.
On the other hand, some sociologists consider them different. The truth is that there is a difference between social change and cultural change. (BEd 2nd Year Social Change Study Material Notes)
Social change is meant a change in the social structure, that is, interactions and cultural change is meant a specific change in the basic elements of the culture, that is lifestyle and eating manners, customs and traditions, arts and skills, music and dance, religion and philosophy, ideals, beliefs and values. It is another thing that this change is also seen as behavioural change.
We can clarify it further by an example. Until recently the people of high castes and low castes lived separately, and if a Brahman happened to touch an untouchable, he would have to take a bath; but today the children of all castes study together and the people of different castes travel together in buses and trains and work together in offices.
The change in the social relationships between the people of higher castes and lower castes is called social change. If this distinction is also eliminated from the mind of the people of higher castes and those of lower castes, and they start to eat and wed together, it would become a cultural change. (BEd 2nd Year Social Change Study Material Notes)
There is another factor between social change and cultural change, and that is, that it is not necessary that social change would result in cultural change, but it is necessary that all cultural change will be social change.
Let us illustrate it by the above example. The change in the social relationships between the people of higher castes and lower castes is social change, but not cultural change, and if the class distinction is eliminated from their thoughts, and they establish dining and marriage relationships, then it would become cultural change, and this cultural change will be social change in itself.
Factors affecting Social Change
The process of social change continues in each society at all times. The rate and direction of social change in a society depend on several factors. Sociologists have divided these factors into two classes —natural factors and cultural factors. They have included geographical and biological factors in natural factors and non-material and material culture in cultural factors.
In our view, it is not proper to divide the factors of social change into only these classes. Culture is meant differently today. Today the culture of a society is meant the specific form of its lifestyle and eating manners, behavioural norms, arts and skills, music and dance, language and literature, ideals, beliefs and values, in which the society has faith and which are the marks of its identification. And the material culture called by some sociologists is at present called civilization, and its form is the same in all societies.
Moreover, the political system, economic system and science and technology also play a role in social change at present. We shall discuss these factors of social change in brief.
1. Geographical Conditions: Each society has its specific geographical extent. It includes the land, forests, seasons, water resources and minerals, etc. It has been seen that the change in the geographical condition of society also changes its social relationships.
For example, if massive destruction occurs at a place due to a flood or tornado, the people forget their mutual differences and help one another and face the calamity, On the contrary, if an area happens to discover a mine, the people may start to indulge in conflicts.
2. Biological Characteristics: In it are included factors such as species, race, type, population and sex, etc. The physical construction of people of different species and races is different, due to which they have differences in behaviour. When the people of one species or race meet the people of another species or race, a change occurs in their social relationships.
In the same way, if the population of a society increases rapidly, physical development takes place rapidly and it increases the feeling of enmity and jealousy. (BEd 2nd Year Social Change Study Material Notes)
On the contrary, if the population of society reduces all of a sudden, the people come nearer and the feelings of love and cooperation increase. The difference in sex is also a chief factor in social change. If the number of women increases as compared to men, women’s behaviour toward men undergoes a change. (BEd 2nd Year Social Change Study Material Notes)
3. Cultural Characteristics: According to sociologists, culture comprises all that man-made thoughts and articles that are good; but in our view, the culture of a society means that specific form of its lifestyle and eating manners, behavioural norms, arts and skills, music and dance, language and literature, religion and philosophy, ideals, beliefs and values in which it has faith and which are its marks of identification. (BEd 2nd Year Social Change Study Material Notes)
We are aware that no change occurs in the culture at all, it is due to social change. We can find a long tale of such changes in history. Once the bindings of caste loosened due to the propagation of Buddhism and the people started to think of social good in place of their own emancipation. It was a revolutionary social good in place of their own emancipation. It was a revolutionary social change at that time. (BEd 2nd Year Social Change Study Material Notes)
This social change takes place even more rapidly when a society adopts the culture of another society. It is called acculturation. For example, take the native Christians of our country. As soon as they converted to Christianity religion (culture), a change occurred in their social relationships; class differences were eliminated in them and feelings of love and cooperation enhanced in them irrespective of the class or community they came from. (BEd 2nd Year Social Change Study Material Notes)
4. State and Political System: Sociologists have not included the state political systems as the causal factor of social change, yet the truth is that it has been an important causal factor of social change from the very beginning. At one time our country was divided into small states or kingdoms and an autocratic system prevailed them. Then the social relationships among people of the states were according to the norms as determined by their rulers. (BEd 2nd Year Social Change Study Material Notes)
During the English rule, the task that social reformers could not do was done by state laws, such as the prohibition of Sati custom and child marriage. Caste bindings have become loose in the democratic political system. Now equal laws apply to all people of the country. (BEd 2nd Year Social Change Study Material Notes)
Some laws have effected massive social change, such as the elimination of untouchability by the act of prohibition of untouchability. Caste bindings have become loose and inter-caste marriages have become the norm. The legal approval of marriage by adult boys and girls has started the practice of love marriages. It has loosened the bindings of caste and religion. All these are certainly social changes.
4. Economic System: Economic system is also an effective causal factor of social change. At one time there was an agricultural economy in our country, at that time, agriculture was considered to be the higher vocation, and accordingly, industrialization. The result is that the industrialists possess a higher place in society. Economic status is also a causal factor of social change.
People of higher economic status generally violate the bindings of caste and religion to establish marriage relationships in families having equal economic status. (BEd 2nd Year Social Change Study Material Notes)
The people of middle economic status have started to do this in their imitation. The people of equal vocations do not hesitate to undertake inter-caste marriages. And all this is social change. (BEd 2nd Year Social Change Study Material Notes)