BEd 2nd Year Theories of Knowledge Study Material Notes
BEd 2nd Year Theories of Knowledge Study Material Notes: A2zNotes Presents study material Long Question Answer Notes by the Latest BEd Syllabus for Philosophical and Socialogical Perspective of Education. A Collection of Question-Answers compiled and Edited by A2zNotes Well Experienced Authors Based on Latest Two-Years BEd Curriculum. Here in this post, we will provide you with Long Questions and Answers for the theories of Knowledge, and the Truth of Knowledge.
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Theories of Knowledge
There are three theories related to means of knowledge:
(2) Empiricism and
According to this theory, the reasoning is only the source of true knowledge. Generally, we believe that there are two sources of knowledge-sense-experience and reasoning. In day-to-day life, we gain knowledge through our experience. Rationalism rejects knowledge based on experience as it is not true. True knowledge has two features.
1. Universality and
- The universality of knowledge means which is true to all time, all places, and all persons e.g., 2 + 2 = 4.
- The necessity of knowledge is another characteristic. It has certainty in its truthfulness.
Socrates and Plato have an emphasis on the university of knowledge. Rationalists talk about concepts and ideas. They employ reasoning as a source of knowledge. They employ two methods:
(a) Deductive Reasoning
(b) Inductive Reasoning.
This school has two assumptions about the means of knowledge
(a) Implicit means all the knowledge within the person
(Unfoldment of Socrate)
(b) Explicit means all the knowledge from outside
(Like Clean Slate of Herbart).
The knowledge is based on certain postulates, which are accepted as true. Deductive reasoning is based on a postulate which helps for further knowledge. (BEd 2nd Year Theories of Knowledge Study Material Notes)
The following are the important characteristics of rationalism.
- True knowledge is universal and necessary and different from day-to-day knowledge.
- The subject of knowledge is stable and fundamental.
- True knowledge originates through reasoning only.
- Experience is the source of knowledge but it cannot be termed true knowledge because it is doubtful.
- All the knowledge is within a person since birth in the form of a seed. Scorate’s unfoldment theory. The formation of the mind involves fundamental knowledge as the first principle. (BEd 2nd Year Theories of Knowledge Study Material Notes)
Empiricism is an epistemological theory. According to this sense-experience is the only source of knowledge and mind or reasoning has no place as a source of knowledge. (BEd 2nd Year Theories of Knowledge Study Material Notes)
The judgment or organization has some in the development of knowledge.
According to Locke
“There is nothing in our intellect, which was not previously in our sense.” It indicates the concepts are since the birth of a person. Locke rejects the idea of birth concepts.”
Knowledge is the perception of agreement or disagreement among ideas. It accepts the idea of universal knowledge.
Empiricism employs the inductive method or reasoning for acquiring and developing knowledge. Empiricism has provided knowledge of physical sciences in objection form based on experience. (BEd 2nd Year Theories of Knowledge Study Material Notes)
It does not reject mathematical knowledge and employs it for developing new concepts of physical science. This type of knowledge may be universal and necessary. (BEd 2nd Year Theories of Knowledge Study Material Notes)
Empiricism has the following characteristics
- The day-to-day experience of a specific thing is also true knowledge. It is real knowledge.
- The sense of experience is the only source of knowledge. The sense-experience is the knowledge.
- There is no concept by birth. The mental concepts are formed through experience.
- The mind is not active from the beginning. Initial sensations are inactive.
- The main element of knowledge is the concept which is through experiences.
It is an epistemological principle. According to this theory, neither reasoning (mind) nor experience is sufficient but their cooperation is essential as a means of knowledge. Both mind and experience are the means of knowledge. It attempts to integrate them to have elective means of knowledge. (BEd 2nd Year Theories of Knowledge Study Material Notes)
Kant is of this view of criticism. Kant has given reason they have advocated their view for the means of knowledge-experience or mind, but they have not criticized or assessed the worth of their own views in this context. These views are dogmatic according to Kant.
1. Universality 2. Necessity and 3. Novelty.
According to Kant, the synthesis of mathematics and physical sciences has the possibility of knowledge. True knowledge is possible. He has included two aspects of combined efforts.
1. Unity 2. Plurality 3. Totality 4. Affirmation 5. Negation 6. Limitations 7. Causality 8. Possibility 9. Actuality 10 Reciprocity 11. Substantiality 12 Necessity.
All these twelve forms are without experience. These are mental forms of an object.
Kant’s view is that the knowledge object is perceivable in the outside world, but we do not know the external world. We form it on the basis of our sensations. (BEd 2nd Year Theories of Knowledge Study Material Notes)
“Understanding makes nature out of materials it does not make” -Immanuel Kant
Kant has explained two types of world
- Noumenon understanding and
- Phenomenon Sensibility.
Kant has tried to integrate two different views-experience and reasoning.
Truth of Knowledge
There are two things about ‘truth of knowledge-(a) Nature truth and (b) Test of truth or criteria of truth. For this purpose three theories are important.
- Coherence theory
- Correspondence theory and
- Pragmatic theory.
“Truth happens to an idea, it becomes true, is made true by events.”
Truth is simply a collective name for the verification process, just as health, wealth, strength, etc., are names for other processes connected with life. (BEd 2nd Year Theories of Knowledge Study Material Notes)
1. Coherence Theory-In simple words it means consistency. There are two forms-Self Consistence and Mutual Consistency. It believes in logical empiricism. (BEd 2nd Year Theories of Knowledge Study Material Notes)
In general, every error contains some truth since it has content that in some sense to the universe. And on the other side, all truths are varying degrees erroneous. (BEd 2nd Year Theories of Knowledge Study Material Notes)
2. Correspondence Theory–It is another criteria of the truthfulness of knowledge that means agreement or correspondence of the knowledge. There exist some ideas in our consciousness. Realists have different views about the truth of knowledge.
3. Pragmatist Theory-This philosophy is against absolute idealism. According to pragmatism, there is nothing like absolution and non-changeable assumption. The truth of knowledge can only be examined through our experiences. It is the nature of human knowledge. The relative change is the assumption of pragmatism. (BEd 2nd Year Theories of Knowledge Study Material Notes)