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BEd 2nd Year Types of Education Study Material Notes

BEd 2nd Year Types of Education Study Material Notes

BEd 2nd Year Types of Education Study Material Notes

BEd 2nd Year Types of Education Study Material Notes: A2zNotes Presents study material Long Question Answer Notes by the Latest BEd Syllabus for Philosophical and Socialogical Perspective of Education. A Collection of Question-Answers compiled and Edited by A2zNotes Well Experienced Authors Based on Latest Two-Years BEd Curriculum. Here in this post, we will provide you with Long Questions and Answers for the Definition and Meaning of Education, Types of Education.

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BEd 2nd Year Types of Education Study Material Notes
BEd 2nd Year Types of Education Study Material Notes

Meaning of Education

Education is a comprehensive concept which comprehends the knowledge obtained through newspapers, magazines, radio, television and other means, in addition to the formal education provided in colleges.

The average individual interprets the term in the sense of college education, which is obviously different from the education obtained from other sources. (BEd 2nd Year Types of Education Study Material Notes)

Types of Education

Educationists have distinguished between the various types of education in order to remove this confusion. Briefly, education is of the following kinds.

1. General Education. As is evident from the name itself, general education is the minimum education required by an individual to satisfy all his various needs. It aims at developing the general qualities of the child so that its personality can develop and can become capable of adjusting to its can become capable adjusting to its environment.

It also enables him to earn his livelihood and to behave properly, in accordance with his age. It is generally believed that this general education continues up to the eighth class. All modern states make general education compulsory for all children, and in many cases, it is provided free of charge. (BEd 2nd Year Types of Education Study Material Notes)

2. Specific Education. General education, which is outlined above, is a supplement to specific education, which, as is evident, trains the child to pursue some specific profession or job. The modern age is a period of specialization. As long as an individual cannot perform some particular task better than any other person, he will find it difficult to make a place for himself in society.

It is for this reason that nowadays individuals are given vocational guidance in order to help them to take up professions for which their abilities are best suited. If the individual is given some specific education which concurs with his inherited capabilities, he stands the best chance of developing these qualities to the limit. General education is more liberal while specific education is comparatively narrow. It is not so closely connected with the development of the person’s general personality and character. This is the task of general education. (BEd 2nd Year Types of Education Study Material Notes)

Specific education is spread over a long period of time and is often centred in specialized institutions such as medical colleges, engineering colleges, technical institutes, etc. In each case, the aim is to make the individual proficient in a particular skill, be it curing sick people, designing or repairing machines, growing crops, or anything else. Besides, specific education is also often more expensive than general education. Few people can afford the burden of sending their children to medical and engineering colleges.

General education, on the other hand, is within the reach of almost all people. It also does not require the possession of special mental traits. Specific education, on the contrary, can be really profitable only if the individual possesses mental and physical qualities commensurate with that profession. Specific education plays a very important role in a nation’s development because it provides specially trained personnel in every field who can serve society and enhance the welfare of the nation.

3. Formal Education. In another classification, education is divided into the formal and the informal. The former comprehends education as it is provided in educational institutions according to a particular pattern. In the school, the educator educates the educators according to a specific programme aiming at a particular goal. He follows a pre-determined syllabus. In this formal kind of education, the time and place of teaching are fixed, and the educand has to arrive at that place and at that specific time to receive an education. (BEd 2nd Year Types of Education Study Material Notes)

The length of such education is also fixed in terms of years. Both the kinds of education mentioned earlier can be included under the formal classification because both are often provided in schools. The advantages of the formal kind of education lie in that it can be specifically and consistently provided to a large number of children simultaneously. The objectives of his education are also determined beforehand. Although, of course, education in one form or the other continues as long as a person lives, education in its more common meaning starts at the age of four or five and continues to the age of twenty-five.

During this period the individual passes through a succession of institutions of primary, secondary and advanced education in the form of schools, colleges and universities. At all these places of learning, he receives formal education, provided on a pattern determined by the syllabus which is itself framed with a view to achieving certain fixed targets. The fact that it can be provided to a large number of people is an advantage but also a drawback. Because of its completely formal nature, formal education often fails to touch certain aspects of one’s personality and leaves it completely undeveloped. (BEd 2nd Year Types of Education Study Material Notes)

At times, it can also become so detached from reality that it hinders rather than helps the educator in satisfying his needs. This fact can be seen in the case of the contemporary pattern of formal education in India. It would not be inaccurate to state that, in India, the more formal education a person receives after a certain stage, the more useless he becomes in facing the problems of real life. His adjustment deteriorates instead of improving. (BEd 2nd Year Types of Education Study Material Notes)

4. Informal Education. Informal education complements the formal education outlined above, without which formal education remains incomplete. Education of this kind has no specific time or place at which it is provided. Even the educator is not fixed. All fixed syllabi, rules, and formalities are absent from it. Education of this kind is the education one receives while playing infield, talking to family members in the house roaming around somewhere, in fact, everywhere. This kind of education never comes to an end, and it teaches the individual more than he can ever learn through his formal education.

A child learns many things when he comes in contact with new people. He discovers many new words when he goes to new places. This education that he receives cannot be evaluated as formal education can. Formal education can be evaluated by some specific techniques, and the quality and quantity of education imbibed by the education can be known.

But this is not true of informal education for there is no standard of measure in its case. It also does not provide the recipient with a certificate or a degree. Informal education is a gradual process, for people learn a few things after years of experience.  But the things learnt in this manner prove to be more valuable than all the degrees accumulated through formal education. Formal education provides education on specific subjects while informal education is more general in nature.

5. Direct Education. In another classification, education is divided into direct and indirect classes. Direct education is the equivalent of formal education and specific education. In this form of education, the educator and the educand are in direct contact whence education on a specific subject is disseminated. Its chief advantage lies in the material learnt by the educand more by the example of the educator’s personality and character than by the formal material he seeks to impart. It is for this reason that direct education was very much in vogue in India in the past. (BEd 2nd Year Types of Education Study Material Notes)

The student lived with the teacher and learnt various skills and sciences. Direct education becomes difficult when the number of students becomes very large, or education itself becomes very mechanical and purely vocational. It then loses the advantage of the direct contact between the educator and the educand.

If the pattern of direct education is to be maintained, then the number of teachers must be very large, for one teacher can establish rapport only with a small number of educands. Once the value of direct education was realized, educationists stressed the importance of limiting the size of a class. (BEd 2nd Year Types of Education Study Material Notes)

6. Indirect Education. Direct education was efficacious and practicable in the past when the population was not too large and life had not become as complex as it is today. With the present increase in population, it is no longer possible to provide direct education to all people. In the past, this kind of education was popular also because of the comparative primitive forms of communication. Such modern developments as the printing press, radio, television, etc., have made it possible to communicate the ideas of the greatest thinkers to those people who have never come into direct contact with the thinkers themselves.

For this reason, in the present context, indirect education has come to acquire greater significance than direct education. Many universities have undertaken to conduct correspondence courses, which are a fine example of indirect education. In this form of education, the subject of a lecture is printed and posted to the student. The student is required to answer certain questions sent along with the lecture. These answers are sent by him to the university where they are evaluated and returned to the student with the appropriate guidance. (BEd 2nd Year Types of Education Study Material Notes)

As this kind of indirect education offers a better and more practical adjustment to the circumstances of a very large number of individuals, it is becoming increasingly popular, particularly in the west. All the books that are written by the greatest thinkers and read by a vast audience are excellent examples of this indirect education. It cannot be denied that irrespective of the abilities of the educator, he cannot provide complete education to the educand without turning to books for assistance.

For this reason, the scope and field of indirect education are increasing steadily. In the last few years, teaching through the medium of radio and television is becoming more popular and reached a higher level of sophistication. In India, All India Radio regularly broadcasts lectures and programmes on musical education, cultural education and the like. Through this many millions of individuals gain some kind of education. (BEd 2nd Year Types of Education Study Material Notes)

7. Individual Education. Education is also classified into individual and collective groups. Many modern educational psychologists have stressed the importance of individual differences between people and suggested that the educator should pay individual attention to each education, remove his difficulties and, if necessary, modify the syllabi and the teaching programme to suit the specific abilities and traits of the educand. (BEd 2nd Year Types of Education Study Material Notes)

Scientifically considered, this advice is very good, and if arrangements can be made to provide individual education at this level, nothing could be better. Kindergarten. Montessori and Project methods, all of which are modern methods of child education, attempt to provide the highest degree of individual attention possible. But where education is to be provided to a very large number of individuals, the most expensive kind of education yet devised since one educator can pay attention to the specific needs of only a very small number of students. (BEd 2nd Year Types of Education Study Material Notes)

The experiment conducted by Rabindra Nath succeeded as an experiment, but if it is accepted as a pattern for large-scale education, it would be completely impractical. That is why arrangements are made for collective education, although the value of individual education can be clearly visualized. (BEd 2nd Year Types of Education Study Material Notes)

8. Collective Education. Collective education is provided to a group of individuals collected in one place. Formal education is often also collective education. Keeping in mind the obvious advantages of individual education, efforts are made to restrict the size of the group of educands. The very meaning of education would be lost if the educator lost all contact with the education if they are in too large a number. (BEd 2nd Year Types of Education Study Material Notes)

This form of education is comparatively economical in time and money because one single educator can teach a large number of educands. In view of the present size of the population, and the possibilities of growing further, collective education is the only practicable answer to the need for universal education. (BEd 2nd Year Types of Education Study Material Notes)

9. Conscious Education. Education is also divided into the conscious and the unconscious kind. The conscious kind of education is the education which is provided with full knowledge of the objectives to be achieved through it. A college education is of this kind. It is intended to fulfil certain pre-determined objectives. Conscious education is arranged for the child by his parents and by the state, but the child deliberately receives conscious education. (BEd 2nd Year Types of Education Study Material Notes)

10. Unconscious Education. An individual does not learn all the things he actually knows consciously. Many of the important facts that a child learns are absorbed unconsciously from his natural and social environment surrounds his. This kind of education is informal and since supplements, the education received consciously, neither can be said to be more or less important than the other. Of the various classifications listed above, the division into the formal and informal classes is the most common.

All the other classifications are based on some specific approaches to education, although most of them resemble each other. For example, formal education is also collective education. This classification of education into different kinds has been made by different educationists according to their individual standpoints. A study of each one of these can help to throw much light on the vast field of education and on its various aspects of it. (BEd 2nd Year Types of Education Study Material Notes)

In every classification, both the kinds described; supplement each other because the process of education is many-sided and synthesizing. It takes place at all times and places, but it does not remain the same in every circumstance. It has a multiplicity of forms, means, quantity and quality. It is imbibed both consciously and unconsciously by the individual.

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