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Bed 2nd Year What are the theories of Personality Study Notes

Bed 2nd Year What are the theories of Personality Study Notes

Bed 2nd Year What are the theories of Personality Study Notes

Bed 2nd Year What are the theories of Personality Study Notes: In this post, we will learn about Bed 2nd Year What are the theories of Personality Study Notes? In Bed 2nd Year there is one of the most important questions comes from Growing up as a Learner. Bed 2nd Year What are the theories of Personality Study Notes? It is a process of development. Teaching is a system of actions that induce learning through interpersonal relationships. and all the rest you will study in this Blog.

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Bed 2nd Year What are the theories of Personality Study Notes
Bed 2nd Year What are the theories of Personality Study Notes

Theories of Personality

(1) Rorschach Ink-blot Test

This test was devised by Swiss Psychiatrist Harman Rorschach in 1994 The Rorschach consists of 10 ink blots similar to one another. Some of them are coloured. If we drop ink drops on a piece of paper and fold it, we can obtain such as ink-blot.

To administer Rorschach Cards as shown to the subject one. The individual (subject) is asked as to what he saw in each card what ideas or thoughts arise in his mind etc. The scoring is done objectively on the basis of colour, form, movement, and content speed originality. Scores can be categorised into three-

1. Location, 2. Contents, 3. Determinants. Location involves seeing the whole. Determinant includes shape, colour, shading movement human figure, and animal figures. (Bed 2nd Year What are the theories of Personality Study Notes)

The Rorschach technique has been used in clinical practice, to know about the structure and dynamic of personality as also some aspects of the subject’s mental life, adjustment process, depression, defence mechanism etc.

Evaluation of Projective Techniques

Some of these techniques such as the Rorschach test and Thematic Apperception Test are very popular whereas others are little known partly because they have emerged recently and partly because they do not permit objective measurement. To evaluate separately each of the projective techniques discussed so far is very difficult in the sense that it would require a separate post in itself. As such, an overall evaluation of projective techniques, in general, is presented here.

(1) Flexibility: In projective techniques answers given by the examinees do not hurt or pose any threat to their self-image. As such, they never tend to conceal or distort their true answers In self-report inventories situations are more structured and direct. Before making his answers known to others, the examinee thinks a lot and ultimately moulds the true responses most of the time in light of what is considered socially desirable or undesirable.

Thus, one of the important claims of projective techniques over the self-report measures of personality is that they are not susceptible to the flexibility of responses. Despite this claim, there is evidence to support projective techniques like me RT CAT and the TAT when they are specially instructed to modify or change their responses.

(2) Objectivity: It is said that the projective techniques are less objective than the self-report inventories. In reality, neither the projective tests nor the self-report inventories are objective. Both possess an element of subjectivity in scoring because scoring of Projective tests is said to be subjective in scoring because scoring a response is largely dependent upon intuition and the experiences of the examiner. This automatically means that the results of any two or more examiners cannot be totally identical.

Above all, the interpretation of scores in projective techniques is even more coloured with the element of the subjectively so that quite often the interpretation reveals more about the personality of the examiner than the examination. As a matter of fact, the interpretation for the examiner becomes as projective as the test stimuli for the examinees (Masling, 1960).

The self-report inventories, on the other hand, no doubt possess the trait of objectivity in scoring, the validity of the scores obtained on these tests is largely dependent upon the subjective processes of the examinees. The examinees may not give the true answers which may invalidate the results, irrespective of the fact that the scoring was objective.

(3) Standardisation: Most projective techniques are unstandardised, that is, they lack uniformity in scoring and interpretation. The examiners have free play in scoring and interpreting the responses obtained on standard projective techniques like the RT, the TAT and the CAT. Not only that but it has also been found that the sex of an examiner influences the type and number of responses from a female examinee. Self-report inventories, on the other hand, are mostly standardised and therefore, chances of free play by the examiners are the least. (Bed 2nd Year What are the theories of Personality Study Notes)

(4) Reliability: The reliability of most projective techniques is usually very low. There are probably two reasons for this. First, there is no uniform standard way of scoring and interpreting the responses obtained on projective techniques. As a consequence, scorer reliability is very poor. (Bed 2nd Year What are the theories of Personality Study Notes)

Second, these tests do not yield consistent scores upon retesting of the same subjects. It is also possible to calculate the alpha coefficient (internal consistency coefficient) The only logical estimate of the reliability of such techniques is through the parallel form method. Moreover, most projective techniques (except the Holtzman Inbot text) do not have alternate forms. On the whole, the computation of reliability of projective techniques is very difficult and whatever reliability coefficient has been obtained, is in general, low. (Bed 2nd Year What are the theories of Personality Study Notes)

(5). Validity: Like reliability the validity of most projective techniques is unsatisfactory. Most of the published validation studies on the projective techniques report criterion-related validity and most of such validity coefficients are inconclusive and debatable. In reality, most of the traits measured by the common and standard projective techniques such as the RT, the TAT, the CAT and the Rosenzweig P.F. study are such that they require to construct validity which has not been obtained.

(6) Situational Variables: Situational variables like the physical appearance of the examiner, emphasis on certain types of responses by the examiner and changed instructions are likely to influence the responses to the projective techniques. Some examiners may have a very formidable physical appearance, which is likely to affect the examinees’ capacity to imagine, think and resort to defensiveness. The overall impact of these factors is that they affect the response productivity of projective techniques.

Examiners who do not possess a frightening appearance and who tend to encourage the examinee are likely to influence the responses of the examinees favourably. Not only this but it has been also shown that changed instructions influence the score on projective techniques to a great extent. (Bed 2nd Year What are the theories of Personality Study Notes)

For example, in one study it was demonstrated that when the Holtzman Inkblot test was presented as an intelligence test (thus with a changed instruction), the responses of the examinees were found to be changed than when they were obtained under the usual instruction of the test (Herron, 1964). (Bed 2nd Year What are the theories of Personality Study Notes)

(7) General Applicability: Of the three general types of projective tests, the pictorial and expressive techniques have wider applicability than verbal techniques because they can be used with illiterates, small children as well as upon examinees having speech defects. In general, the self-report inventories which are suited only to literature, have poor applicability, particularly when compared to the expressive and pictorial techniques. (Bed 2nd Year What are the theories of Personality Study Notes)

(2) Personality according to Allport The American psychologist Gordon W. Allport (1897-1967) presented his theory of personality in his famous books: Personality: A Psychological Interpretation (1937), Becoming: Basic Consideration for a Psychology of Personality (1995) and Pattern and Growth in Personality (1961). G.W. Allport defined personality as, “Dynamic organisation within the individual of those psychophysical systems that determine his characteristic behaviour and thought.”

According to Allport, human personality is a developing and charging organisation of habits, attitudes and traits. The term psycho-physical, used by Allport, points out those personality systems are both physical processes. Allport maintained that motivational systems are functionally autonomous. (Bed 2nd Year What are the theories of Personality Study Notes)

They are not dependent upon the antecedent om which they arise. For example, a good craftsman may continue the objects of furniture even though his income no longer depends upon it because he has become habitual and his motivation is independent ods that originally stimulated it. (Bed 2nd Year What are the theories of Personality Study Notes)

Allport’s theory of personality, the functional autonomy makes it distinct from historical and genetic factors utilised in the explanation of present behaviour. While the psycho-analysts explain the causes of behaviour in the past, Allport explains behaviour through the present factor. (Bed 2nd Year What are the theories of Personality Study Notes)

According to Allport, personality trait is the best and most valid concept for the study of personality. According to him, personality traits are the ns that have the capacity to make a variety of stimuli functionally lent and to initiate and guide behaviour. For example, a prejudiced dual will react to all the members of a minority group (stimuli) as though were identical (functionally equivalent) when in fact they are not so. Moreover, one can expect such an individual to react consistently in approximately the same manner. The traits are similar to habits. Some traits are primarily individual traits.

These are the personality traits that are less specific to given individuals to some degree and which, therefore, make measurement possible. Examples of such traits are sociability, dominance etc. However, Allport does not wish to say that personality is a mere collection of traits. The concept of Proprium is central in Allport’s systems of personality. This concept includes what traditional psychology has called self, ego and style of life.

According to Allport, the related concept of appropriate striving is of first importance. It refers to the motivated behaviour which is central to the self of proprium. According to Allport, appropriate striving includes all those forms of behaviour which attempt to realise the self’s potentialities, the goals of life, the struggle or realise ideals.

Allport’s theory of personality emphasises abundance motivation as opposed to deficiency motivation. It lays emphasis upon man’s seeking of new horizons, going forward and always becoming something new. This is opposed to the view of the systems which emphasize man as seeking equilibrium of homeostasis. Allport’s system may be characterised as relying on social against biological factors, although biological factors are not excluded.

In the end, Allport’s system emphasises the individual as a whole or self rather than as a congregation of parts or mechanisms.

In the field of personality psychology, Gorden Allport has emphasized personality traits. In some places he appears to be traditional while on the other he appears to be very much original and contemporary. In fact, Allport has synthesized traditional ideas with contemporary research to arrive at his theory of personality.

One finds the influence of Gestalt psychology, William Stern, William James and William Mc Dougall on Allport’s theory of personality. Since he has laid emphasis on individual differences in personality, therefore his the of personality is known as the Psychology of the individual. Again, since he considered traits as the most important element in personality, therefore theory is known as Trait theory.

According to Allport, the unity of the individual is maintained in the complexity of human life. Individual facts are the most important determinants of the behaviour of the individual. Due to the importance of motivation in the individual behaviour, self and ego are important in personality. (Bed 2nd Year What are the theories of Personality Study Notes)

According to Allport, personality is not the result of the past but of the present. Not unconscious but conscious motivation has been considered to be important in his theory.

He does not admit continuity between normal and abnormal, child and the adult, animal and the human is nor prepared to accept the psycho-analytic theory in this connection. On the other hand, he is also not prepared to seek the help of physical sciences in the interpretation of human behaviour, since according to him, methods of natural sciences cannot explain the complex human behaviour but only create difficulties in its study. A mechanical model, animal model or child model is sufficient to understand human behaviour.

Therefore, Allport has sought the help of various social sciences in the interpretation of social behaviour. He has used the concept of conditioned response, habit, attitude, self and ego to explain human personality. Amon these also, levels of personality have been decided by traits, attitudes and tension. What Murray has called need, Freud has called instinct and Me Dougall sentiment, has been called traits by Allport. (Bed 2nd Year What are the theories of Personality Study Notes)

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