BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Adjustment
BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Adjustment: In this post, we will learn about BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Adjustment? In Bed 2nd Year there is one of the most important questions comes from Growing up as a Learner. BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Adjustment? Teaching is a social and professional activity. It is a process of development. Teaching is a system of actions that induce learning through interpersonal relationships. and all the rest you will study in this Blog.
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Meaning and Definition of Adjustment
Generally, an adjustment is meant to mold oneself according to the prevailing situation; however from a psychological viewpoint, adjustment is meant to maintain a harmonious balance among needs, aspirations, and circumstances.
Borring, Langfield, and Weld have defined adjustment in this form. In their words:
Adjustment is the process by which a living organism maintains a balance between its needs and circumstances that influence the satisfaction of these needs. -Boaring Langfield and Weld
According to Gates and others, a child or person has to modify his behavior in order to create a balance between himself and his circumstances, so he has to process of adjustment continue unabated. They have defined adjustment as a continuous process.
In their words:
Adjustment is a continuous process by which a person varies his behavior to produce a more harmonious relationship between himself and his environment. –Gates and others
If this topic is analyzed minutely, it becomes evident that a child’s or person’s circumstances comprise his entire environment: natural, familial, social, religious, economic, and political. (BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Adjustment)
In such a case, the adjustment should be defined in our view, as follows:
Adjustment is meant for a person to maintain a harmonious balance among his needs, aspirations, and circumstances (his ability and capability and his family, social, economic, religious, and political environment). An adjusted person leads a stress-free life.
Types of Adjustment
Adjustment is generally classified in two ways. According to the first classification, adjustment is of the following types:
- Self-adjustment: self-adjustment is commonly meant to adjust by oneself. Sometimes a child or person is faced with such a situation that causes conflicting ideas, conflicting desires, and conflicting aims in his mind. He fails to decide which idea, desire, or aim he should adopt, and which he should abandon. This is called a situation of mental conflict.
For example, if a student receives an offer for an interview for placement with a company on a day he has his B.Ed examination, and he is unable to decide which one to choose and which one to abandon; in such a situation, a conflict arises between his dual ideas, desires, and aims; when such a conflict is alleviated by adjustment, it is called self-adjustment.
Often, there occurs a situation of mental conflict in ideas, desires, and aims due to desire for material luxuries, fulfillment and non-fulfillment of desires, social norms and customs, norms of religious and moral ideals, and financial instability. The psychologists advise following defense mechanisms to get rid of such a situation. (BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Adjustment)
- Social Adjustment: By social adjustment is meant for a child or person to adjust himself to his environment. A child or person has to make a continuous effort to establish a balance between his needs, desires, capabilities, interests, aptitudes, attitudes, etc., and the surrounding environment in order to realize his satisfaction and happiness, and he makes effort for this. If he succeeds, he is said to have adjusted himself, and if he fails, he is said to have unadjusted himself.
According to the other classification, adjustment is of the following two:
- Right Adjustment: By right adjustment is meant for a child or person to succeed to adjust between his capabilities and abilities and environment. If a child or person determines his needs, desires, and aims after having evaluated his capabilities and abilities, he does not take undue time in realizing them, and he obtains satisfaction and happiness through his efficiency and balanced conduct. (BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Adjustment)
However, if he faces barriers in their realization, he faces them courageously and succeeds to overcome them.
A well-adjusted child or person possesses the spirit of sociality, and he is emotionally balanced and happy.
- Maladjustment: By maladjustment is meant for a child or person to have failed in creating a harmonious adjustment between his needs, aspirations, and circumstances, resulting in mental stress, due to which he behaves deviating from his family and social norms. (BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Adjustment)
A maladjusted child often involves himself in antisocial behavior and suffers from an inferiority complex.
Mechanism of Adjustment
If complex, anxiety and mental conflict, prevail in a child continuously, they prove troublesome as well as harmful to physical health. An effort should be made to keep children from such a troublesome situation. However, if a child becomes its victim, all those possible means should be adopted which can alleviate or lessen it. (BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Adjustment)
The application of these methods helps to lessen the situation of complexity, anxiety, conflict, and stress, and he succeeds to adjust himself to his environment. These methods are called mechanisms of adjustment.
These methods or techniques are classified into four types as follows:
- Direct methods.
- Indirect methods or defense mechanisms.
- Compensatory methods.
- Aggressive methods. Let us discuss them in some detail.
Let us discuss them in some detail.
Direct Methods methods are those by which a child or person makes an effort to alleviate his mental stress consciously. In these methods, he applies his faculties of logic and thinking. These can be enumerated as follows:
- Removing the Barrier: In this method, a child or person removes the barriers (s) coming in the path of his success. When the barrier is removed, he becomes able to realize his need, desire, or aim, and his stress is lessened.
For example, if a child is unable to solve all questions in the examination due to his slow speed of writing and thus does not get good scores, and he enhances the speed of his writing, that is, removes the barrier, it is called the method of removing the barrier. (BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Adjustment)
- Seeking Alternative Path: When a child or person is not able to solve his problem using one method, he looks for an alternative measure and solves his problem, and thus diminishes his stress, it is called seeking an alternative path.
- Substitution of Goal: When a child or person fails to realize his specified goal and gives it up and takes up another goal and realizes it, is called substitution of goal. For example, if a child fails in the science stream and opts for the arts stream, in which he succeeds in ultimately lessening his stress; such a situation is called substitution of goal.
- Analysis and Decision: When a child or person is confronted with two equally desirable goals, out of which one has to opt, he goes for one of them keeping in with his past experiences and future needs, and thus resolves his problem, and alleviates the stress arising from this problem. Such a method is called the method of analysis and decision.
Indirect Methods or Defence Mechanism
Indirect methods or defense mechanisms are meant those methods which a child or person adopts subconsciously. Some automatic processes keep running in the subconscious mind in order to save himself from bad experiences. A person is not even aware of them, and he keeps running them by his mental images. (BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Adjustment)
It results in lessening his stress temporarily. These processes lead to diminished bad experiences which cause stress; therefore, these are also called defense mechanisms too. (BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Adjustment)
The defense mechanism comprises important defense techniques to adjust or reduce stress, which are as follows:
- Sublimation: In this method, a child or person sublimates his problem to solve it, and thus lessens the stress arising from it. For example, when a child is faced with the problem of sex and is unable to satisfy it directly and he takes the help of creativity in art or literature to satisfy it, such an attempt is called sublimation. (BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Adjustment)
- Withdrawal: In this method, a child or person separates himself from the situation which creates mental stress in him; for example, when a child fails to get respect in his peer group, he abandons its membership.
- Regression: By regression is meant to adopt the previous behavior. When a child or person fails in an enterprise and starts to behave childishly, he cries or screams, it is called regression. (BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Adjustment)
- Daydreaming: When a child or person fails to realize his needs, aspirations, or goals and achieves them in his fancy world to reduce his stress, it is called daydreaming, for example, when a child fails to get first division and fancies to have passed in the first division in future and thus reduces his stress. (BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Adjustment)
- Identification: When a child or person, in the state of his failure, understands or attributes the success of any other related person to reduce his stress, it is called identification: for example, when a child does not stand first but he reduces his stress by saying that his elder brother ever stands first. (BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Adjustment)
- Dependence: In this method, a child or person gives up himself at the command of others, and abides by their suggestions and directions in order to seek his success and thus reduce his stress. (BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Adjustment)
- Rationalization: When a child or person does not succeed in attaining his goal, he looks for a less troublesome cause in place of the actual cause: such a situation is called rationalization: for example, when a child fails in the examination but he attributes this failure by some other cause by saying that he felt giddy, so he could not solve the question paper well.
- Repression: When a child or person represses his desire when confronted with a barrier in the path of realization of his desire, and thus reduces his stress, it is called the repression method. It is not a good method as it leads to mental deformities later.
- Projection: When a child or person does not accept himself as the cause of his failure and accuses others of it in order to reduce his stress, it is called projection, for example, a child accuses the teacher of his failure by saying that she did not teach all that which was asked in the examination. (BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Adjustment)
Compensatory methods are those by which a child or person, having failed in one field, alleviates his stress by attaining success in another field; for example, when a student fails to achieve a higher distinction in the educational field goes on to create a magnificent niche for himself in the sports field. (BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Adjustment)
Aggressive methods are those by which a child or person hurts or harms the barriers which hinder the realization of his needs or desires, and thus achieve mental satisfaction. (BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Adjustment)
Aggression can be direct or indirect. In direct aggression, a person himself harms the barriers to remove them, while in indirect aggression, he harms other elements in place of actual barriers; for example, when a student, on having been caught using unfair means, attacks the supervisor (direct aggression); or beats his friend, younger sibling in place of the supervisor to satisfy his anger (indirect aggression). (BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Adjustment)