BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Adolescence
BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Adolescence: In this post, we will learn about BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Adolescence? In Bed 2nd Year there is one of the most important questions comes from Growing up as a Learner. BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Adolescence? Teaching is a social and professional activity. It is a process of development. Teaching is a system of actions that induce learning through interpersonal relationships. and all the rest you will study in this Blog.
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Meaning and Condition of Adolescence
The English word adolescence is a derivative of the Latin ‘adolescere’ which means to grow to maturity. This age begins from twelve and continues till the age of twenty. (BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Adolescence)
In the words of Jersild, “Adolescence is the period through which a growing person makes the transition from childhood to maturity.” Adolescence, in the opinion of most educational psychologists, begins between the age of 12 to 24 years. Compared to boys, girls enter the period of adolescence a couple of years earlier.
According to Dr. Jones, Adolescence is the recollection of infancy. It parallels the states of infancy and childhood in being patterned into the conditions, the first of growth and the second of maturation.
- State of Growth: In this state, the adolescent is seen to be very active and unstable as well as disturbed. He gives the impression of being somewhat lost and is subject to rapidly varying moods of dejections and elation, enthusiasm and deep lethargy, etc. The main thing concerning this period in life is that the adolescent is no longer a child but an adult, though the society in which he lives continues to treat him as a child.
Secondly, he climbs down from the dizzy heights of imagination that he reached in his infancy and childhood and steps firmly into the real world. Both these factors engender in him a constant fear of reproof and criticism at the hands of others. He often becomes helpless and pitiable, shy and repressed. (BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Adolescence)
This does not indicate that he runs away from the real world, but that he tries to modify it according to his own notions. In efforts of this kind, elation and dejection are often seen wearing a look of anxiety.
- State of Maturation: By the time he enters this stage, he has calmed down a bit and shown signs of stability. He carves a niche for himself in his society, and gradually, his tendencies, habits, and activities become stable and regular.
In adolescence the individual is so transformed that he wears a new and unrecognized look, Mental changes in this period of life find their best exp the work of poets as they depict the mental states of young men Adolescence exhibits the following mental characteristics generally:
- Development of Mental Abilities: In adolescence, the individual’s nervous system becomes more strong with the result that his mental activities show greater tenacity and system. The ability to think, solve problems, differentiate, and evaluate are some of the more prominent abilities that he exhibits. (BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Adolescence)
- Sexual Development: From the psychological viewpoint, most of the period of adolescence is sexual development, significant characteristic of the period of adolescence is a sexual force of infancy, that continued latent According to Dr. Jones, the repressed sexual force of infancy, continues latent passes through the period of childhood, once again awakens as the individual passed through various stages of sexual development. (BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Adolescence)
The truth of the matter is not the only tendency is undoubtedly most prominent if it is not the only tendency, the sexual tendency is undoubtedly the most prominent and stable tendency to be found in adolescence. Hence, to disregard it is to make a stable tendency to be found in adolescence. Hence, to disregard it is the most harmful form of negligence conceivable. The development in this sphere is so rapid that his entire personality appears to be colored by it.
Sexual development in adolescence finds its expression in attraction toward strangers, rather than towards parents as in the case of infancy. It announces its presence even in such small activities as the young boys’ anxiety and nervousness, biting of fingernails, putting a pencil in one’s mouth, tying knots in handkerchiefs, etc. Both physical and mental teaching in this age can use sexual tendency as an important force. (BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Adolescence)
Normally, the development of the sexual tendency passes through the following three stages:
(a) Auto-eroticism: At the beginning of adolescence, sexual tendency manifests itself in self-love, but this self-love differs from the infant’s self-love. In infancy, the child finds physical pleasure in exploring and touching various parts of his own body. But in adolescent self-love, the individual dresses himself and meticulously observes his face continuously in the mirror, and does his very best to make himself as presentable as possible. (BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Adolescence)
Many young men and women passing through this stage can be seen humming as they look at themselves in the mirror. They are content to be with themselves and love only themselves. As they have no time to observe and appreciate others. Fraud calls this state narcissism. (BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Adolescence)
The term has a long story behind it, from which the term originate Narcissus was a Greek prince of almost unparallel beauty, who could not be anyone more handsome than himself he loved himself probably justifiably. A flow is called narcissus, and it grows by the side of the lake in such a manner that its aim is visible in the water. Young men and women in their teens behave in a similar manner as they love to look upon themselves and beautify themselves. (BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Adolescence)
One most prominent and common malpractice in adolescents is masturbation. The American psychologist Kinsey, in his famous report, mentioned the various ways in which young men and women derive pleasure. their sexual experiences. Sometimes the failings of guilt that arise as an indulgence in these activities lead to the formation of complexes that are harmful to the mental development of individuals. The one and on escaping such consequences is proper sex education.
In order to impart the right attitude towards the sexual tendency to young people, it is essential that teachers and prints tell them everything frankly so that they may adopt this healthy attitude.
(b) Homosexuality: Progressing from the stage of self-love, young boys and girls are attracted to members of their own sex, either older or younger than themselves. Homosexual love of this age is accompanied by great anxiety and deep affection but later on, it turns into heterosexual love. Persons of this age can often be seen caressing each other, roaming together, preferring only each other’s company, sleeping together, praising each other, and finding other modes of expressing their mutual attraction.
Some girls also develop the habit of exciting each other’s sexual organs. Similar aberration is present in boys in the form of sodomy, which leads to feelings of guilt and crime if the person is reproved for these activities. Such bad habits can be got off only through the medium of sensible guidance and sex education of the children by the parents and teachers.
It is always desirable that adolescence passing through this phase, should be controlled sensibly but it is equally essential that all control exercised over them should be in the form of loving advice rather than punishment.
(c) Heterosexuality: The state of homosexuality in adolescents is succeeded by sexual maturity, a state of moral heterosexual relations between men and women. (BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Adolescence)
Young men and women who have attained this age can often be seen being attracted to members of the other sex, meeting each other, talking incessantly for hours on end, putting their best feet forward to attract the other and hold such attraction adopting the latest fashions to appear the more attractive, going for walks together, visiting picture houses together, caressing each other and sometimes even going to the extent of actual sexual intercourse, though this often has disastrous results as the girls become mothers even before they are married. (BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Adolescence)
The strength of this sexual tendency can neither be curbed nor can any strict control upon it prove efficacious even if it is considered desirable. Excessive restrictions on a meeting between boys and girls in colleges and universities only lead to greater indiscipline and misconduct. Hence, much education about their, relations should be encouraged.
On the other hand, the traditions that have continued our culture stress the complete segregation of the sexes during this period. In the modem context, any effort at emulating these traditions can only prove foolhardy in the future, and in any case, such efforts are not likely to prove efficacious. Uncontrolled and impassioned contacts can only lead to such ostensible and detestable consequences as suicides, unmarried mothers, social corruption, etc. (BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Adolescence)
Hence, it is essential that the youth of today be provided with proper sex education and encouraged to develop a healthy attitude towards sex. This will have the desirable effect of preparing them for responsible parenthood when they ultimately get married.
Another method of solving problems of the sexual impulse, besides sex education, is inspiring young men and women to develop an interest in various kinds of games and sports, dances, singing, art, painting, etc. It is a matter of universal regret, particularly among the enlightened population of the nation, that nearly 99% of teachers and guardians find it embarrassing to discuss any sexual matter with their young charges. (BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Adolescence)
The consequences are undesirable as the young inexperienced adolescent learns the same things from bad and uncouth companions who convey to him all the aberrant forms of sexual information. Such a situation is true in many civilized societies, and all the more adolescent observes that their teachers and guardians prefer information secret and concealed from the forms a guilt complex to the normal stage of development he can do nothing to abate the urge, and he is helpless as no assistance from his teacher is forthcoming.
Thus, he either indulges all his energies in. trying to control the instinct interest in studies in which he cannot concentrate, forms obnoxious and deforming habits, or as an alternative contracts serious mental disease excessive repression. Hence, teachers and parents should assist adolescent males and females to organize, control, and sublimating their sexual impulses through adequate sex education. (BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Adolescence)
- Hero Worship-Generally speaking, adolescents evince a strong tenderness towards hero worship, though the criterion of heroism is not the same in children. (BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Adolescence)
Possession of any quality that attracts an individual child the most is sufficient qualification for a man or woman to become his ideals. While one child may regard a wrestler as a hero, another may profess allegiance to a political leader. In schools, some teachers impress their students considerably with the result that they come to be tenderly and affectionately regarded by them, also being imitated by the tender children. Sometimes this hero worship turns into love.
It is not till considerably later that the young man turns his thoughts to his own heroic qualities when he begins praising them. The tendency to hero worship can be turned into good account by inculcating a proper character and personality in the child’s mind. For this, it is essential that the teacher himself should represent the highest ideals, as he is the best example that the child can facilely imitate. (BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Adolescence)
- Religious Feeling: Many adolescents become positively and deeply religious in this period of their lives. One can often observe them loving God in someone’s image, talking to Him, sacrificing themselves to Him, and praying to Him. India is particularly productive of such specimens since, for one, the religious tendency is deeply ingrained in the people’s minds, and for another, in Indian society young boys and girls meet great leaders and famous personalities on very rare occasions.
Where religious tendency protects the young inexperienced child from many bad habits, it sometimes helps in making him somewhat impractical. Teachers can help to create a healthy attitude towards religion.
- Gregariousness: Adolescents are always acutely desirous of being among their friends, praising them, and improving their relations with them. Often, they form definite groups in which each adolescent has his specific status and a role to suit him. This status and role play an important part in determining his status and role in adult life.
- Extroversion: In this period, the child once again regains his extrovert flamboyance, taking a deep interest in his surroundings and other individuals, their activities, and conflicts. In school, too, he can spend the larger part of activities. And it is a matter of joy with him if he can spend the larger company of his friends.
Various individuals become engaged in social service and welfare.
In this manner the adolescent interest that he takes in the real world. This interest can be useful ingrain in him in such useful qualities as self-dependence, self-deter cooperation, discipline, honesty, and the quality of maintaining good relations with others or developing the social instinct. This is the age in which the foundations of good citizenship can be deeply laid.
- Lack of Stability and Adjustment: It has been pointed out earlier, too that in his adolescence the growing individual is at the threshold of his life although he is rarely if ever considered an adult by his seniors. From the Curshological point of view, he takes himself seriously enough not to consider himself a child and likes to be treated as an adult.
Evidently, he shows considerable instability and a lack of adjustment. His adaptation to his environment is upset by such small considerations as the growth of pimples on his face or the presence of other small physical deformities. In fact, it is a stage in which he learns to lead adult life in every sphere and direction.
Hence, the presence and continual development of problems are only natural. And these problems are susceptible to al ready solutions if the seniors are prepared to extend their sympathetic cooperation and guidance.
- Excessive Sentimentality: The adolescent is very sentimental and builds emotionally unstable although at this age his mind is fairly well-developed. Of the many feelings that drive him the strongest is the desire to win praise and self-respect, any injury to or repression of them leading to serious malformations ing and even open rebellion.
Sentimentality can be tuned to good use in developing not cultural traits in the adolescent. Participation in programme of dancing, acting, music, painting, etc., makes the emotional life more stable.
- Excessive Imagination: Although the adolescent is as much in this world as any other living, he is prone to many imaginary flights into the world of the fancy. The smallest thing can persuade him to temporarily abandon the world of reality and turn to the imaginary world. Such excessive imagination manifests ply itself in the strong tendency toward daydreaming, but some gifted children express their creative and aesthetic imagination through literature, music, and painting, among other arts.
- Particular Interests: In adolescence, as the individual develops both in mind and body, his interests very. Progressively the boys and girls develop the interests of their adult counterparts. Girls show this development in such interests as the use of various cosmetics, efforts, at appearing beautiful, reading or taking interest in romantic novels, love stories, dramas or poems, participating in music, art and acting programme, etc. (BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Adolescence)
Boys manifest their approaching adulthood in the form of various active games, running around, doing acts of valor, and developing a vocation that they are to pursue in their adult life. Both boys and girls take constant interest in developing friendship With members of the other sex and maturing it to fruition through conversation, intimacy, letters, and romance.
- Development of the Mind: In adolescence, the mind develops rapidly. The cells of the nervous system increase rapidly, and the chemical composition of the nerves also undergoes a change. In this way, the mind and the nervous system rapidly mature. In this period along with physical and mental development, practice helps developmental abilities. Linguistic ability also registers Improvement during this period. In his adolescence, the child develops the vocabulary that he possesses.
His vocabulary reveals general intelligence.
Mental development, too, reaches its apex in adolescence. Despite the inevitable individual differences that are invariably present, mental maturity achieves its completion normally by the age of twenty. Practice or experience contributes considerably to this maturation. (BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Adolescence)
Normally, the individual’s intelligence continues on the same level, or, in other words, even at different ages, the intelligence quotient of an individual remains more or less the same. Many detailed studies have revealed that during the first five years of life, mental development is greater than that achieved during the following five.
In this manner, the mental development during the ages of 10 and 15 is greater than that during 15 and 20, in respect of rapidity. At the age of ten, the mental development of a child is at its fastest. Following this, as the child approaches the stage of adolescence, the speed of mental development slows down.
In his infancy, the child only acknowledges and indicates the feeling of sensations, while at the age of three he is in a position to distinguish between objects, animals, and human beings. At six, he is capable of describing a picture that he has seen, but in his adolescence, he rises above description to the level of interpretation of the pictures that he sees.
In this manner, one can see constant development and improvement in the mind’s reactions to stimuli. Generally, an individual’s memory is tested by the number of digits he can remember after they have once been announced to him. In adolescence, the ability to remember digits improves with age and reaches its highest peak at the age of twenty.
Need for Understanding Adolescence
The adolescence period is a transition from childhood to adulthood.
A major part of the population ranges between the age of 13 to 21 years. In a democratic country like India, it is great secondary and higher secondary school teachers. The national development in different fields of life depends on the proper education and guidance of adolescents. (BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Adolescence)
This period of adolescence is significant from the following point of view:
- Problems and Development Characteristics: Every teacher and parent must know about the nature and changes emerging in the transition period from childhood to adulthood. (BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Adolescence)
They must also know the various problems faced with developmental characteristics to deal effectively with the problems of adolescents. It is also necessary for them to be familiar with casual factors of the problems of adolescents so that proper individual, educational and vocational guidance may be provided for adequate adjustment in society.
- Maintenance of Mental Health: The progress of a country depends on the maximum exploitation of its human resources. Sound mental health is one of the first requisite conditions of development. Adolescence is marked by a number of problems that affect mental health. The study of adolescence is very important in order to preserve, cure and prevent incidences of maladjustment. (BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Adolescence)
- Adjustment and Sharing Responsibilities: The study is significant to provide the knowledge of needs and development tasks for adolescents. Parents and teachers can help adolescents to adjust to their responsibilities. By understanding the needs of adolescents, the teacher and administrator can frame appropriate curriculum, school policies, and methodology for teaching them. (BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Adolescence)
- Curiosity about Oneself: To study the psychology of adolescents may be a desire to know something about oneself. Such a desire is quite justifiable and understandable if the student is in adolescence period. But it is also a sound motive for an older person. (BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Adolescence)
The older person who studies adolescence has within himself a potential source of insight into issues facing the person of adolescent period-issues that once he had to face. It may also be due to the scholarly interest of an individual.
- Leadership: During the adolescence period leadership trait emerges among the students. The school should offer a variety of opportunities for leadership. Training for leadership is an important responsibility of education.
Leaders among students are usually superior in ability to the average of the group, especially in the sphere in which they are recognized as leaders. (BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Adolescence)