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Bed 2nd Year What do you mean by classification of Teaching Aids

Bed 2nd Year What do you mean by classification of Teaching Aids

Bed 2nd Year What do you mean by classification of Teaching Aids

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Bed 2nd Year What do you mean by classification of Teaching Aids
Bed 2nd Year What do you mean by classification of Teaching Aids

Classification of Teaching Aids

Teaching aids are classified into three parts:

  • Visual Aids
  • Audio Aids
  • Audiovisual Aids.


What do you mean by classification of Teaching Aids? Describe in detail.


These aids involve the use of the sense of hearing. The students take more interest in what they see and show more curiosity. These aids are also called audiology aids, as-chart, models, slides, maps etc.

Details of some visual aids are as follows:

(a) Black-Board

In physical science teaching, the blackboard is a more useful teaching aid. It is a common teaching aid. In a real sense, without the use of a blackboard, the teaching of physical science is dishonesty. The blackboard reflects the personality of the teacher. A teacher of mathematics says everything by means of it. It is the minimum equipment for physical science teaching. It is the cheapest and most indispensable teaching aid. In physical science, most aspects can be clarified only through writing. Generally 3 x 5,4 x 6 and 4 x 8 fit size of black-board are use. (Bed 2nd Year What do you mean by classification of Teaching Aids)

Different types of black-board are :

  1. Fixed Black-board,
  2. Roller Black-board,
  3. Graphic Blackboard, and
  4. Tri-fixed Black-board.

Precautions for Using of Black-Board

The teacher should take the following precautions while making use of the blackboard:

  1. Students and teachers should maintain carefully a blackboard so that a schedule of after-school cleaning may be set up by the teacher. (Bed 2nd Year What do you mean by classification of Teaching Aids)
  2. The teacher should not start teaching while the students are busy copying the blackboard matter. When the children have noted down the summary then only the teacher should start the teaching work.
  3. Students should be allowed to use the chalkboard whenever practical and appropriate.
  4. Blackboard material such as chalk, duster etc. should be prepared in advance.
  5. The rough work done to explain and the blackboard work should not be mixed. The rough work should be erased after the accomplishment of the task or should be done separately.
  6. While writing on the blackboard such an atmosphere should be avoided which gives the feeling of artificiality or the students will not be able to study properly. While explaining the various pictures, charts etc. on the blackboard, a pointer should be used.
  7. Student can shut their brains off, the teacher does not teach the student does not learn. Copying notes from the blackboard can be an effective segment of a lesson.
  8. The teacher should supplement the learning experiences with activities like discussion or debate in order to involve students in true learning experiences. (Bed 2nd Year What do you mean by classification of Teaching Aids)

Aims of Black Board Summary

The teacher makes use of the black-board to achieve the following aims :

  • Main points for retention.
  • Printing of facts on mind without cramming.
  • Audio-visual aids
  • Helping weak students.

So, the teacher should pay more attention to the blackboard. The blackboard tells us about the teacher and his/her personality. The good work on the blackboard, organised from and compact matter, and clear and beautiful handwriting indicates the good personality of the teacher. Thus, the teacher should use the blackboard carefully and properly so that his/her personality can become more impressive. (Bed 2nd Year What do you mean by classification of Teaching Aids)

(b) Charts, Graphs, Diagrams, Models

Charts, graphs, diagrams and models play a very important role in physical science teaching. When the time is short then the teacher can make use of charts and graphs etc. With the help of the charts, the teacher can explain the various functions, topics and information of physical science with ease, The charts help in creating a suitable subject atmosphere in the classroom and clarifying various difficult things. In the same way graphs, diagrams and models are used. The teacher can draw various pictures and diagrams and explain the topic clearly. Models are more useful in the teaching of science. After seeing and handling the models, students get self-encouragement to make certain models themselves.

The teacher should make use of every opportunity to enhance the lesson with Visual illustrations. Therefore, whenever a diagram, table, graph and chart would assist students in their learning, the teacher, should prepare visual aids and integrate them into the lesson.

For effective use of charts, graphs, diagrams and models the following points should be kept in mind :

  1. The size of the chart should be appropriate so that it can clearly be seen by each student in the class. It should neither be too big nor too small. (Bed 2nd Year What do you mean by classification of Teaching Aids)
  2. The teacher should have clear objectives for using visual aids and ensure that students have learned the necessary information presented to them,
  3. The figure and diagram should be neat and clean.
  4. The teacher should sketch out any visual aids prior to the lesson if he/she is going to draw the diagram, table, graph and chart during the lesson.
  5. The teacher should use the pointer to indicate a specific part of the diagram.
  6. The teacher should not assume that. students have assimilated and understood all the valuable information.
  7. The chart, model, the diagram should be preferably multicoloured and artistic. The beauty and colourfulness make them more appealing. (Bed 2nd Year What do you mean by classification of Teaching Aids)
  8. In the classroom, there should be a fixed place to exhibit the chart.

(C) Film Strip

A film strop contains a series of still pictures of about 24 to 48 frames arranged in a sequence. Knowledge about various functions, discoveries and other information related to physical science can be imparted with the help of film strips. It may be used for large groups or individualized instruction, for introducing a unit or for teaching a lesson. In the film strips, each subject is given in systematic sequence and in detail and gives a clear knowledge of the subject, thus the knowledge imparted through this medium is effective and permanent. (Bed 2nd Year What do you mean by classification of Teaching Aids)
Various film strips can be used to give new colours and attraction of different ideas of physical science. These strips can be had from the market. In India, now the film strips on various subjects are being prepared commercially.

Suggestions for using Film Strip

Some suggestions for using film strips are as follows:

  1. The teacher should ensure that all audio and video equipment is working properly.
  2. The teacher may discover that the audio accompaniment is less than stimulating. Uninteresting and monotone audio can spoil exciting visuals. (Bed 2nd Year What do you mean by classification of Teaching Aids)
  3. Develop questions to ask the students. Moreover, this open-ended approach is more creative.
  4. Decide when would be the most suitable time to show the filmstrip.
  5. After the film strip is viewed, the teacher should review and reflect on important points of the film strip.

(d) Magic Lantern

Magic Lantern is used to project the diagrams, and pictures on the wall screen in magnified form. For it, slides, are prepared before their use in the class. While projecting the slides, the teacher explains the important aspect of the picture visible on the wall screen.

Precautions: The following precautions should be kept in mind for the use of this :

  • The slide should be used for the repetition of the subject lesson.
  • Only trained teachers should be appointed for this purpose.
  • Give a brief description before using any slides,

(e) Epidiascope

Epidiascope is a combination of episcope and diascope. With the epidiascope in the epi-position, flat opaque objects can be projected. In dia-position, slides either 31″X3/4” or 3/4” X 4” can be projected using a suitable slide carrier.

In epidiascope, one 1000-watt lamp or one 500-watt lamp or two 500-watt lamps are used. There is a powerful blower cooling the lamp and directing a blast of air on the opaque object to be projected. In spite of the cooling provided, the page of any book if exposed for a long time to the intense heat from the lamp will become dehydrated brittle and crumble to pieces.

The light that is scattered from the book page is less than 20% and is used to form the image on the screen. Hence in spite of the bright light source and wide aperture epi-projection lens, the image formed on the screen will not be bright. Hence during epi-projection, the room should be totally darkened.
For dia projection, total darkening is not necessary. The large slides 3/4” X 3/4” or 3/4” X 4” can be produced by hand-drawn or using a camera or by the reflex printing process. As the light rays are transmitted through the transparent slide, the image appears to vary bright on the screen. (Bed 2nd Year What do you mean by classification of Teaching Aids)

The reflecting mirrors in the episcope are surface silvered or surface aluminized and should not be touched on the surface. The projection lenses should be kept covered when not in use to prevent dirt and dust from settling on the exposed front surface. Proper cleaning of the lenses and perfect alignment of lamps will ensure a better and brighter image.

Advantages of Epidiascope

It has the following major advantages :

  1. In epidiascope slides and transparencies are also used. The teaching aids are directly projected from the textbooks.
  2. It is used in darkrooms as well as in lighted rooms, which helps in teacher-taught interaction.
  3. The small pictures and small diagrams are projected in large size which is easily understandable to the learner.
  4. It is used for projecting still pictures in large sizes on the screen to explain clearly to students.
  5. It functions as a supporting device in classroom teaching and interaction to provide deep experience.
  6. The accurate diagrams and figures of science are projected in large size in the classroom.


By the use of this type of aid, the student gains knowledge through the sense of hearing. The use of audio aid students listen to the new discoveries and scientific inventions and life histories of scientists and gaining knowledge.

(a) Radio

Nowadays radio is not only a recreational means but it is used as educational technology. Different types of educational programmes are broadcasted through an India Ratio. Some topics and lessons of physical science are also presented at a specified time. Talks of subject experts on some specific topics are also presented on the radio. Thus, these devices can effectively be used as teaching aid.

(b) Tape-Recorders

Tape recorders use a thin piece of metal, plastic or paper tape. The metal tape is usually an endless belt in recorders that have a continuous record-play back-erase application. The plastic and paper tapes are approximately 1/4 inch wide and are reeled very much like 8 mm film. (Bed 2nd Year What do you mean by classification of Teaching Aids)

What do you mean by classification of Teaching Aids? Describe in detail.

The tape may be played back indefinitely without deterioration and like the wire used in a wire recorder, may be used over and over by ‘erasing’ the previous recording. If the tape tears, it may be repaired with scotch tape. If you wish to remove a part of the recording or insert a new section, cut the tape to remove or insert a section and then splice it with scotch tape. Some tape recorders record up to five hours of a continuous programme. A standard 3-hour roll of recording tape costs approximately $ 2.50.

Sound recording and playback equipment play an important role in a well-rounded teaching programme. Many audio experiences that contribute to student growth and development are the result of proper utilization of equipment that serves a variety of purposes at all ages and levels of learning. The specific use of the recording and playback equipment should be determined by the individual Instructor, A teacher improved their instructional technique by using Historical Documents, Literature, language, and speech. class, dramatics and music equipment.

Many historical documents have been recorded for general distribution. These recordings can be used to revive the mood of a period, recreate the atmosphere under which the document was delivered and lend vividness, reality and urgency to the learning.

Leading actors have made records of great drama and these recordings are part of the recorded literature of present-day studies.

The language student not only has foreign language records designed to facilitate language learning but also can draw upon the recorded literature of other countries in developing the essential understanding of the idiom.

The speech teachers have in the recorder, a device through which students’ speech errors may be demonstrated. It is effective for corrective work in pronunciation. It serves for teaching diction by permitting the student to hear himself immediately following his own presentation. It is useful for pupil-teacher as well as a teacher.

The dramatics teacher and the radio workshop director each make valuable use of the sound recorder invoice testing and voice analysis in recording samples of student performance and music for general uses.

Characteristics of Tape-Recorder

The main characteristics of tape-recorder are as follows:

  • It is economical and effective.
  • The use of this discipline is maintained in the classroom.
  • It can also be moved by a battery.
  • Recorded content should be listened to again and again by the use of a tape recorder.
  • This teacher saves time.
  • Many music teachers regularly record the work of students so that progress may be demonstrated.

Limitations of Tape-Recorder

The following limitations of tape-recorder are:

  1. Lack of feedback and interaction of the students.
  2. It is only a one-way communication channel.
  3. It can not give the chance of questioning.
  4. Lack of educational records in the market.
  5. It is useful only for gifted children.

(C) Wire Recorder

In this recorder, sound may be recorded on a wire approximately five-thousandths of an inch in diameter. The most commonly used spools are the 1/4 hour, 1/2 hour and one-hour sizes and cost approximately $ 2.00, and $3.00 respectively. One of the outstanding advantages of wire recording is that it will not only playback the recording as frequently as desired but it may also be used over and over again for other programmes simply by ‘erasing’ the previous programme. The wire spools are compact and may easily be stored for future use. (Bed 2nd Year What do you mean by classification of Teaching Aids)


In the use of these aids, the eyes and ears work together. The child sees with his eyes and listens with his ears and tries to memorize the teaching points. The knowledge bestowed by these aids should have the quality of being precise, and real. thematic and have comprehensibility. In the absence of these the audio-visual aids lose their usefulness.

In other words, these aids involve the use of the sense of hearing and seeing.’ For example Television, Film, Drama etc.

(a) Television

The national channel of Doordarshan (DD1) is relaying many educational-related programmes. In India, Doordarshan was started in 1955. Firstly it is used for educational programmes, in Delhi, In recently these many experiments are conducted. lectures and replayed and life histories of scientists are highlighted.

Teaching by a good teacher and a specialist’s lecture, the students can listen to and watch on television. While sitting at home. Television allows the teachers to bring current events into the classroom and if students are encouraged to be critical in their interpretation of news and other programmes, television can be a valuable resource.

Advantages of Television

The advantages of Television are as follows:

  • The teacher and students must watch out for relevant programmes. Recording the relevant programme is better.
  • Any person or students collect the information at home by this.
  • The programme on television should be recorded and reused at the needed time.
  • All-round development is possible.
  • Saving time.
  • It gives knowledge in groups.

Precautions of Television

Following precautions are kept in mind while using television :

  1. Videotapes can also be kept to be played at a later date as a form of review.
  2. Remember that video-taped programmes can be stopped if a question is raised and selected scenes replayed if necessary.
  3. Seeing television is a silent place.
  4. If all teachers in a particular school collaborate, an interesting, comprehensive school video file can be built up in a short time.

(b) Overhead Projector (OHP)

The overhead projector is a very popular teaching tool. Using OHP is not a new concept. It dates back to world war II when the armed services employed this equipment for teaching recruits.

The OHP is designed for direct or indirect, projection. The overhead projectors designed on the principle of indirect projection use the tubular projection lamp (750 or 1000 W) as in a film projector.

Method of Using Overhead Projector

A triacetate film of minimum thickness is available as a continuous roll. This roll could be constantly rolled over the illuminated stage. Matter clearly written on continuously created over the surface could be presented on the screen. This method of using the OHP requires the projector to be continuously working during the entire period. This procedure is costly as the lamp has a limited life and the projector may also get very hot in spite of the cooling arrangement. Matter can be permanently written on acetate sheets using a quill or ruling pen or repidomat pen with special acrylic markers with special inks.

Temporary, erasable impressions may be created with Chinagraph pencils, also called glass marking pencils and watercolour markers with special inks. These impressions can be removed by wiping with a dry cloth or cotton waste, Acetate sheets may be cleaned with a sponge dipped in detergent or soap solution.

Tri acetate sheets are also available in large rolls of 75 ems width which could be cut into sheets of dimensions 20 x 25 or 25 x 25 cms. They can be suitably mounted on suitable cardboard mounts. Poster boards make attractive mounts.

The teacher should be kept in mind the following points :

  1. The teacher should have all transparencies to be used during a particular lesson ready and in the correct order.
  2. The first transparency should be ready for viewing before the lesson begins.
  3. The teacher should stand next to the OHP facing the class. He/she can refer to the transparency while students refer to the projected image.
  4. The teacher should use a pen or a pointer and point to particular areas on the transparency without getting his/her hand in the way. (Bed 2nd Year What do you mean by classification of Teaching Aids)
  5. When the transparency is no longer applicable to the particular part of the lesson the OHP light should be turned off to avoid distraction and the next transparency placed on the OHP which is turned back on at the appropriate time.

Advantages of OHP

The main advantages of the overhead projector are as follows:

  1. A very large projected image in a minimum projection distance is obtainable.
  2. The comparative lighter weight of the equipment makes it portable. It can be carried out anyplace.
  3. The teacher can always face the class, maintaining eye contact with the pupils. There is no back and forth action when using the OHP as in the case of a chalkboard.
  4. Effective visuals can be made in a minimum of time and at a low cost. Once transparency is made, it is permanent. It need not be erased as on a chalkboard.
  5. OHP can be used in a well-lighted room which enables the teachers to develop a sort of circuit of understanding by watching the expression of others.
  6. A personal approach is possible because projection materials may be tailor-made by the person who will use them. By employing some of the techniques like the pointing method, revelation technique, silhouette technique and presentation of visuals step by step with the help of overlays, the teacher can enhance the interest in the lesson and maintain attention.


  • The teacher should stand on the left-hand side of the projector.
  • The teacher should use transparency on the need.
  • The fan should be left on after the use of the projector so that the projector is cooled off.
  • OHP should be used or handled by trained teachers.
  • The OHP light should be turned off when the transparencies are no longer applicable to the particular part of the lesson.
  • The teacher should use of pointer at the appropriate time.

(C) Motion Picture

Motion picture as an aid to teaching is inferior to direct experience. They can be classified as entertainment films and educational films. Educational films may be further subdivided into general educational films and classroom films. Classroom films are on curricular subjects produced for promoting learning in a specific curricular subject. Educational films should be films devoid of anti-social activities and abnormal behaviour.

The procedure of Motion Picture

  1. The teacher must choose a film with care and good critical judgment and should check film libraries and video stores.
  2. The teacher must preview the film before showing it to the class.
  3. Once the validity of the film has been confirmed it should be introduced to the class.
  4. Before class, all equipment must be checked and the film loaded so that it is ready to go. The screen and desks must be arranged to ensure maximum viewing by all students.
  5. All distractions should be removed from the classroom. Teachers and pupils should then formulate some questions for discussion. (Bed 2nd Year What do you mean by classification of Teaching Aids)
  6. After the film has been viewed, discussion and culminating activities are essential.

Advantages of Motion Pictures

The following are the advantages of motion pictures :

  • Motion presents certain meanings involving motion. Action gives an impression of reality and promotes better understanding.
  • Motion pictures bring the past and the distance to the classroom.
  • Motion pictures compel attention and as a result, help in the permanent retention of observed events.
  • Fast and slow motion can be shown to occur at normal speed, making analysis and appreciation possible.
  • Many general topics can be covered and conveniently presented in an easily digestible form and in an interesting way to maintain attention. (Bed 2nd Year What do you mean by classification of Teaching Aids)

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