BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Development
BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Development: In this post, we will learn about BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Development? In Bed 2nd Year there is one of the most important questions comes from Growing up as a Learner. BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Development? Teaching is a social and professional activity. It is a process of development. Teaching is a system of actions that induce learning through interpersonal relationships. and all the rest you will study in this Blog.
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Elizabeth B. Hurlock-“Development means a progressive series of changes in an orderly coherent pattern. It is a process in which the internal physiological changes and the psychological processes stimulated by them are integrated in a way which enables the individuals to master further and new environmental stimulations.”
Meaning and Definition of Development
Development refers to change in structure form or shape and improvement in functioning, e.g., hands only grow large but they also develop, because they also improve in their functions. (BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Development)
Thus, development can be defined as “a progressive series of changes in an orderly coherent pattern, the term progressive signifies that the changes are directional leading forward rather than backward. These changes include; change in size, proportions, the disappearance of old features and acquisitions of new features at physical, social, emotional and intellectual and of daily living.”
Development can be defined as the emerging and expanding of capacities of the individual to provide greater facilities in functioning such as the development of motor ability from uncertain steps to proficiency in games. Development as a matter of fact is achieved through growth. (BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Development)
Boring—”By the term development, we mean the changes in the shape of the parts of the body and the integration of the various parts into the functional units as growth goes on.”
Development refers to the interaction of a person and his environmental surroundings whose after-products alter existing response tendencies in such a way as to increase-
- Their strength. The degree of differentiation and
- the organization of personality.
It refers to those effects on the person’s cognitive-emotional systems which strengthen or enlarge one or more of them, increase their number or interrelate them in some different way. Development is confined to qualitative changes in the organism.
Development has the following main characteristics-
- It is an interaction between a person and his environment
- It is confined to qualitative changes in the form and function of the organism.
- It involves a progressive sense of changes leading forward not backward.
- It refers to the acquisition of new features in physical, social, emotional and intellectual and daily living.
- It is the emerging and expanding capacities of the individual.
Characteristics of Development
The variation or individual difference is universal in nature and is known as the principle of the variability of inheritance. There are two principles, one is resemblance and another is variability. (BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Development)
The development process is governed by both principles. It has the following main characteristics-
- Product of the Interaction between Person and Environment: It is the process resulting from a constant interaction between the potentialities of a child and his environment. Heredity forces are inherent in the genetic constitution or structure of the individual and environmental factors influence the development of an individual.
- Continuous and Life-Long Process: It is a continuous process from the time of conception and up to the end of life. There are spirits in physical growth and psychological, functioning as an increase in height and weight; acquiring vocabulary during pre-schooling and a sudden rise in problem-solving abilities during adolescence.
- Individual Process but takes place in a Group: Each child has his own rate of physical, social, emotional and intellectual development. At different age-levels children have different rates of development. The rate of growth is very high in infancy.
- Different aspects of Development are Inter-related: The physical, social, emotional and mental developments are interrelated. If a child is physically handicapped then his social behaviour will be retorted. Motor development has a positive effect on the mental development of children. Different aspects are interdependent and assist one another.
- Development Proceeds from General to Specific: The development of an individual is based on the principle of mass differentiation and integration. The behaviour emerges as more differentiated, refined behaviour and purposive responses and functions. The child acquired a vocabulary of many words and the skill of communication develops.
- Cumulative and Positive Process: Certain changes are based on earlier development. From an early age, children are encouraged for certain behaviour but later on, they are discouraged for the same. He begins to behave in a different way because development is always behaviours refined. (BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Development)
- Development is Bilateral to Unilateral Trend: There are two aspects of development physiology and function. During the early period of life, both are observed separately but gradually both aspects integrate into the process of development.
- The development follows a Systematic Sequence: There is a difference in the rate of growth and development among the individuals, but the development follows a systematic sequence among all individuals.
There are several directional trends in the developmental process.-
(i) It starts from the head and proceeds towards the heel.
(ii) It starts from the centre line of the body to the outer parts, more distant “from it.
(iii) Locomotion develops in a sequence in all infants of different cultures of the world.
- Development has Uniform Pattern: There are various human races in the world but there is a uniform pattern of development in their physical, social, intellectual and emotional development. The rate of development is also uniform.
- Development and Integrated Process: There are various dimensions or aspects of development, social, emotional, physical and mental. The changes occur in these aspects of integrality. It means at different age levels emotional, social and mental development is of the same nature. There is simultaneous development in these aspects.
- Variation in Development: The nature of development in all aspects is a similar or uniform pattern but variation exists in the extent and intensity of the development in different, aspects.
Statges of Development
There is a great dispute among psychologists and scientists regarding the stages of human life. The age group is for the class organization in schools, but it is a system of solving problems of different age group subjects. A person tries to solve his problems of different age group subjects. A person tries to solve his problems by inventing ways and means. Development is a process which has various stages. (BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Development)
According to Saily-
- Infancy- (I to 5) years.
- Childhood (5 to 17) years.
- Adolescence – (12 to 18) years.
According to Ross-
- Infancy – (1 to 3 years
- Pre-childhoods – (3 to 6) years
- Post-childhood- (6 to 12) years
- Adolescence- (12 to 18) years
According to Kalsnik-
- Prenatal Period
- Neonatal – 3 or 4 weeks before birth
- Early infancy-(1 to 15) months
- Adolescence-15 to 30) months
- Early childhood-(3 to 5) years
- Middle childhood-(6 to 12) years
- Adolescence (12-18)-years.
Thus, there are various stages of development, but from an educational point of view, four stages are taken into consideration.
- Prenatal period up to birth.
- Infancy stage from birth to 5 years.
- Childhood stage 6 to 12 years.
- Adolescence stage 13 to 19 years. Also known as ‘Teen Age’
The last two stages are most important for a teacher to understand the nature of development with regard to physical social-emotional and mental development. (BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Development)
The first two stages are most significant for parents especially for mothers to understand the nature of the development of the parental period and infancy of the children. (BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Development)
Forms of Development
Development is a process and it has some specific characteristics. The characteristics of development help or guide us to understand the nature of the development of a child, The following changes are observed during the process of development.
- Structural Change: Growth concerns the changes in height and weight form of the body. It can be observed and measured.
- Changes in Proportion: The child is the miniature of the adult. There are proportionate changes or growth in the structure of an adult. The proportion is also noted, in mental, social and emotional development.
- Changes in Old Features: Some changes are observed in the old features of an individual. These changes are caused by the thymus and pineal glands. (BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Development)
- Acquisition of New Features: The old features gradually vanish and new features and acquired. There is a change in teeth and growth in sexual organs. Maturation is the stage that an individual is ready to function.
- Predictability of Development: The rate and speed of development provide the basis for the prediction of development.
- Definite Pattern of Development: What-so-ever the form of development but if has a definite pattern. It is the law of nature.
- Development has Specific Characteristics: Each stage of development has some traits or specific characteristics. The most effective traits of each stage emerge in process of development. Every individual has to go through these stages. The behaviour which appears unique behaviour during the process of development is normal.
Factors Influencing Development
Growth is a natural and automatic process but development is planned and deliberate efforts to bring desirable changes among children. The development process depends on heredity and environmental factors. Thus, it is influenced by these factors-
- Heredity features are intelligence, sex, race, secretion of glands, height, weight, and structural features.
- Environmental factors are nutrition, fresh air and light, open environment, family status, culture, diseases and injuries.
- Intelligence: The most important aspect of development refers to mental development, it depends on the intelligence of the child. All other types of development are also influenced by intelligence. An intelligent child acquires new behaviour of child reflect-his level of intelligence. (BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Development)
- Sex: There is a difference between boys and girls with regard to their growth and development. The body constitution and structural growth of girls are different from boys. The functions of boys and girls are also of different nature.
- Secretion of Glands: The parathyroid glands make the body more sensitive and more emotional. The thymus glands influence mental and chest development. It brings an early maturity among children.
- Races: The racial factor has a great influence on height, weight, colour, features and body constitution. A child of the white race will be white, tall and smart. Even hair and eye colour are governed by the concerning race.
- Nutrition: The growth and development of a child mainly depend on his food nutrition: Malnutrition has adverse effects on their structural and smartness. Even hair and eye colour are governed by the concerning race.
- Family Status: Nutrition and family status have similar influences. The poor family can not provide a balanced diet for their children. It will affect adversely. (BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Development)
- Social and Cultural Factors: The behaviour and functional aspect is greatly influenced by the social and cultural environment in which a child lives. They acquire values, feelings, and attitudes. (BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Development)
- Disease and Injuries: Mental injuries and other types of lung disease have adverse effects on the development of children.