Bed 2nd Year What do you mean by Ecology
Bed 2nd Year What do you mean by Ecology: In this post, we will learn about Bed 2nd Year What do you mean by Ecology. In Bed 2nd Year there is one of the most important questions comes from Environment Education. You will learn about Bed 2nd Year What do you mean by Ecology. Teaching is a social and professional activity. It is a process of development. Teaching is a system of actions that induce learning through interpersonal relationships. and all the rest you will study in this Blog
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Meaning and Definition of Ecology
Ecology is a new science that deals with the various principles which govern the relationship and interdependence between organisms and their environment. The term ‘ecology’ was coined by combining two Greek words, Oikos (meaning house) and logos’ (meaning the study of) to denote such relationships and interdependence between the organisms and environment. The term ecology has been defined in various ways by definition have been provided in the following paragraphs:
Ecology has been defined as the study of the structure and function of the ecosystem. It may be stated in simple terms “It is the study of structure and functions of nature.” (Bed 2nd Year What do you mean by Ecology)
C.J. Dreb (1985) defined ecology in simple and a comprehensive way “Ecology is the scientific study of the interaction between organisms and nature, that determine the range/ distribution and abundance of organisms.”
MacFadyen (1957) defined ecology as, “a science which concerns itself with the inter-relationship of living organisms, plants, animals and their environment.” (Bed 2nd Year What do you mean by Ecology)
Clarke (1954) defines ecology as the study of interrelations of plants and animals with their environment which includes the influences of other plants and animals as well as those of the physical features.”
L.R. Taylor (1967) has defined ecology as “the study of the way in which individual organism, populations of some species and communities respond to those changes.” (Bed 2nd Year What do you mean by Ecology)
Alles et.al (1949) considered ecology as, “the science of interrelation between living organisms and their environment, including both the physical and biological environments and emphasizing inter-species as well as intra-species relations.”
The modern ecologists have given somewhat more comprehensive and broader definitions of ecology as follows:
Southwide (1976) defined ecology as, “the scientific study of the relationship of living organisms with each other and with their environments.” The further explained his definition of ecology by stating that, it is the science of biological interactions among individuals, populations and communities, and it is also the science of ecosystem -The inter-relations of biotic communities with their nonliving environments.” Pinalea (1973) defined ecology as, the study of relations between organisms and the totality of the biological and physical factors affecting them or influenced by them.” (Bed 2nd Year What do you mean by Ecology)
M.E. Clark (1937) considers ecology as “a study of ecosystems or the totality of the reciprocal interactions of all organisms to all their environment, it is a scientific approach to the study of environmental interactions which control the welfare of living things: regulating their range, distributions, abundance, reproduction and evolution.”
Characteristics of Ecology
The analysis of the above definitions reveals the following character ecology:
- It is a scientific study for analyzing the relations between organisms and the environment.
- It includes the structure and function together for a full understanding of this vast nature.
- It is the study of inter-relationships and interdependence between organisms and the environment.
- It is the scientific approach for controlling and regulating the welfare of living organisms.
- It is also a philosophy in which the world of life is interpreted in terms of natural processes.
- It is the study of organisms in relation to their environment.
- It is the science of all the relations of all organisms to all their environments.
- It is the science of the ecosystem. The ecosystem is an important ecological unit.
- It is the science of interrelation between organisms and their environments and also emphasises inter-organism as well as intra-organisms (within) relations. (Bed 2nd Year What do you mean by Ecology)
Objectives of Ecology
Ecology is an independent field of study as it has a body of knowledge not similarly organised in any other science subject. Ecology has a social set of methods, techniques and procedures. The theme of ecology has its own. The following are the main objectives of ecological studies:
- To study the relationship between living organisms and the environment.
- To provide a true understanding of the structure and functions of the vast nature.
- To analyze the interdependence between organisms and environmental components.
- To evolve scientific approaches for controlling and regulating the welfare of living organisms.
- To interpret the world life in terms of natural processes. (Bed 2nd Year What do you mean by Ecology)
- To provide a comprehensive awareness of all relations between all living organisms and their all environments.
- To evolve mathematical models to relate the interaction of environmental components and predict their effects by employing system analysis. (Bed 2nd Year What do you mean by Ecology)
- To explore the evolutionary development of the interrelations between living organisms and the environment.
- To study the conservation and management of natural resources and environmental pollution. It is the main focus of applied ecology. (Bed 2nd Year What do you mean by Ecology)
- To observe the biological productivity of the physical environment or picture and how the products may best serve mankind or improve the quality of man. It is the main aim of ecology. (Bed 2nd Year What do you mean by Ecology)
The objectives are related to different areas of ecology and the other disciplines -population ecology, geography, physiology, evolutionary, ethology, ecosystem, system analysis and applied ecology. There is not one ecology but several ecologies to understand the relationships. (Bed 2nd Year What do you mean by Ecology)
The Area of Study of Ecology
The field of study of ecology is very vast. It does not confine to biological sciences form where it has evolved but it has reached the social sciences and also up to behavioural sciences of the edifice of knowledge. Ecology has been viewed as “a state of the mind” on the basis of its holistic nature, as a unifying social movement. It accelerates the rate of economic development to meet the demands of the ever-increasing human population at global and regional levels.
Ecology is a science that requires minimum time and labour for the introduction of a layman. Present-day problems of varied nature in human life are directly and indirectly very much related to the field of ecology, as their solution needs ecological knowledge. The ecology has been contributing these days very much to socio-economic, industrial, technological, political and other policies and plans of the world. There is interdependence not only between ecology and other areas of plant sciences but also between ecology and physical as well as social sciences. Ecology indeed plays an important role in human welfare. The field of study of modern ecology is concerned with the functional interdependence between organisms and their environment.
Ecology is an interdisciplinary discipline and it includes not only life science but also chemistry, physics, geography, geology, meteorology, mathematics, statistics, sociology, climatology, anthropology, hydrology etc. An ecologist has to collect the data for interpreting the behaviour of an organism in a given environment which are obtained from many sources: morphology, geology, taxonomy, genetics, physiology, soil science, climatology, physics and chemistry. Many practical applications of this area are found in agriculture, horticulture, forestry, limnology, fishery, biology survey, oceanography, public health, mental health and hygiene.
Ecology helps in discovering new sources of food, sources of energy (solar energy) and new methods of pest control such as biological control which cause no environmental pollution. The major themes and area of ecological study at the ecosystem level and ecosystem is a fundamental ecological unit. (Bed 2nd Year What do you mean by Ecology)
Kind of Ecology
The scope of ecology is very vast, therefore, various kinds of ecology, Early scientists have classified it into two major kinds-(i) animal ecology and (ii) plant ecology. When the equal emphasis is given to animals and plants, it is termed bioecology.
Ecology is broadly divided into (i) Autecology and (ii) Synecology.
- Autecology deals with the relationship of one species of organism. Autecologists study the life history, population, dynamics, behaviour, and home range of single species e.g., the bullfrog of India.
- Synecology deals with the ecological studies of communities or the entire ecosystem. A synecologist studies deserts, caves or tropical forests. The describes the overall energy and materials flow through the system.