BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Educational Psychology
BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Educational Psychology: In this post, we will learn about BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Educational Psychology? In Bed 2nd Year there is one of the most important questions comes from Growing up as a Learner. You will learn about BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Educational Psychology? Teaching is a social and professional activity. It is a process of development. Teaching is a system of actions that induce learning through interpersonal relationships. and all the rest you will study in this Blog.
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Definitions of Education
Educational Psychology is an area of study in both Education and Psychology. It is a result of an interdisciplinary approach to education.
- C.E. Skinner-“Educational Psychology deals with the behaviour of human beings in an educational situation. It is concerned with the study of human behaviour personality its growth, development and guidance under the social process of education.”
- W.C. Trow-“Educational Psychology is the study of psychological aspects of education.
- Crow & Crow-“Educational Psychology describes and explains the learning experiences, of an individual from birth through old age.” (BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Educational Psychology)
- Sawray & Telfere-“The major concern of Educational Psychology is with learning. It is that field of psychology which primarily concerned with the scientific investigation of the psychological aspects of education.
- H.R. Bhatia-“Educational Psychology is a science by its own rights, and thoughts. It draws most of its material from general psychology and is applied to the teaching-learning process. It has its own scope”
Meaning & Definition of Educational Psychology
Generally, educational psychology is understood as a discipline in which psychological principles and laws are applied for understanding and solving educational problems: however, it is somewhat different from it. We have come to know by the discussion done so far that education is a process of modifying human behaviour and psychology is a posit the basic, motivating and controlling factors of human behaviour. (BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Educational Psychology)
As such both of them are related to human behaviour and both human behaviour and they are interrelated. The application of principles and laws of psychology in the field of human education related to basic, motivating and controlling factors of human behaviour developed a new branch of psychology known as educational psychology.
It is clear that educational psychology is a branch of psychology, it is an applied psych and its scope is limited to educational problems. The development of this branch of psychology has its own history, so it is necessary to discuss it briefly in order to understand its real form. (BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Educational Psychology)
The teachers in the ancient Vedic period (2500 – 500 BC) knew several psychological facts and they used them in the education of their pupils. This type of thinking and experiment continued even after them. However, the relevant facts in this context are that psychology had no independent existence until the final phase of the nineteenth century, this type of thinking formed a part of philosophy only. Secondly, its form was not scientific then; and thirdly, no formal study had been conducted for its application in human education till then. This task was performed by western scholars, and we study all of that in the form of educational psychology
In western countries too, psychological facts have been used in human education since ancient times, but they were given a scientific form in the modern age only. The Greek philosopher, Plato is the first man in the western world that started to provide education on the basis of children’s internal capability and ability.
His pupil, Aristotle rook forward this task. By the end of the seventeenth century, psychological facts were used in the educational field in this form in the western world. In the eighteenth century, Rousseau took some revolutionary steps in this field, but he failed to provide it with a scientific form. Psychology continued to be a part of philosophy in his times, and its form was not scientific and no formal study was started for its application in the educational field.
As far as the application of psychological facts in the educational field is concerned, this task was started by Pestalozzi and after him, his pupils Herbart and Froebel took it forward, but they too could not provide it with a scientific form. The work of separating psychology from philosophy and studying it independently was started by William James of America.
In 1880 he published his book Principles of Psychology. This book presented psychology as an independent discipline, and it laid emphasis on the application of psychological facts, principles and laws in human education. In true terms, psychology and educational psychology were started by William James. At that time, Galton presented his views on associationism. It started the formal application of psychology in the educational field. In 1890, the French psychologist, Alfred Binet conducted tests on intelligence and developed a method of intelligence measurement in 1905.
At that time, psychologist E.L. Thorndike propounded the principles and laws of learning on the basis of his experiments. It gave a more systematic form to educational psychology. After him, several other psychologists started to work in this field among whom the Gestalt psychologists Max Wertheimer, Koblar and Koffka, and psychoanalyst Freud contributed a lot to this field. At present, it is developed in the form of an independent discipline, it has its own scope of the study, it has its own methods of study and it has its own methods of research. (BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Educational Psychology)
Not only this, continuous research work is being conducted in this field as a result of which it is continuously developing. Several scholars have attempted to define educational psychology.
Kolesnic has defined it in a very brief form. In his words:
Educational psychology is the application of the findings and the theories of psychology in the field of education. – Kolesnic
However, the truth remains that all discoveries, principles and laws of psychology are not used in human education, only those discoveries, principles and laws are used that are related to the growth and development of human beings. From this viewpoint. The definition given by Skinner is more adequate:
Educational psychology utilizes those findings that deal especially with the experiences and behaviour of human beings in an educational situation.
If we desire to define educational psychology in a clearer manner, then we can do it in the following way:
Educational psychology is that branch of psychology in which the forms of man and of his education are analysed on the basis of psychological facts, the psychological solutions to the problems related to his education are found and the methods to make his education effective are presented.
This definition of educational psychology is complete and clear in itself. It includes the form and functions of educational psychology.
Nature and Characteristics of Educational Psychology
The above discussion regarding educational psychology makes out the following facts about its nature:
- This is a branch of psychology.
- This is applied psychology, its application makes human education effective.
- This only studies the physical and mental faculties and behaviour of man.
- This studies the innate and environmental factors of human behaviour.
- This is used to understand and control human behaviour and to give it a desirable direction, and a prediction is made about it.
- This is a positive science, the principles and laws propounded by it are proximally true, so this is a proximal positive science.
- Though this is a positive science, it is not pure science, the principles and law propounded by it are proximally true, so this is a proximal positive science. (BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Educational Psychology)
Scope of Educational Psychology
We have seen that Educational Psychology developed out of Applied Psychology. Today it has required a position of its own. Although, as already studied, it draws a good deal of material from general psychology, it has assumed its own position and status. The subjects of study under Educational Psychology may be enumerated as below-
(a) Heredity and Environment: Proper education of the child can go only when the teacher is well-acquainted with the heredity and the environment of the child. In the words of MacIver and Page, in their book entitled “Society’ heredity and environment have been defined as below-
“All the qualities of life are in the heredity, all the vocational qualities depend on her or on the environment.”
In fact, for a proper education, the knowledge of the qualities of the child is to be acquired. This a possible only through the study of heredity and the environment. (BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Educational Psychology)
(b) Human Psychology or Structure of body: The body is an important part
of the personality of the child. We have already seen that child is a mind with a body. Body and mind act and react upon each other. It has, therefore, become essential to study the structure of the human body, for the successful implementation of the scheme of education. The character of a child depends to a very great extent on the body. A study of the body has, therefore, to be made.
(c) Intelligence and Maturity: From birth, a child starts reacting to the environment. This reaction continues to bring about maturity. In fact, this plays a great part in the education of the child. If the environment is healthy, education is bound to be healthy. It is, therefore, the duty, of the teacher to help to maintain a healthy and proper environment for the child. He should also from, time to time examines the student. If till the point of maturation or maturity, the environment of the child has been proper and healthy, he is sure to grow into a great personality. Educational Psychology has to attend to this thing as well.
(d) Principles of Teaching of Education: From very birth, the child why starts acquainting education. This process of learning starts from birth and ends at death. First of all, the child learns through imitation, but later on, he starts learning through observation, introduction etc. Educational Psychology studies the problem of making the process of learning simply in order to enable a child to complete this process in a shorter span of time. A teacher has to attend to this problem as well.
(e) Guidance Counselling: It is only after a successful study of Educational Psychology that a teacher can discharge his duties successfully. The teacher has to guide and counsel the educands at every stage. Rousseau was of the opinion that the child is like a book whose every page has to be studied by the acts of the teacher: The impact of the saying is that the teacher has to guide his disciples at every phase and stage. (BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Educational Psychology)
(f) Psychology of Teaching: In the field of Educational psychology. The psychology of teaching occupies a very important place. In the words of Rousseau ‘education is child gardening’. A teacher has to be a successful gardener, and tend to notify the children who are the budding flowers of society. In order to help the children to grow into beautiful flower plants of society, he has to water them with the principles of psychology. In other words, it means that the teacher has to take care of the children in a psychological manner.
(g) Synthesis of the individual or ego and the social aspects of the child: In fact, ego is an essential part of the personality of the child. In society, this ego develops in accordance with the social environment. The child has to establish coordination between his individual personality and his social personality. Educational psychology has to study the entire personality of the child.
This is helpful in the process of education also.
(h) Development of the Character: The aim of education is to character of the child, The development of the character, to a very depends upon the environment. The environment is formed by the Educationists and competent Psychologists can help to bring about an environment in society. In this way, they can also help to provide the character of the child. It is with this aim in view that the developed character is studied under Educational Psychology. The teacher shows develop the character of the students, on the basis of the principles of psychology. (BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Educational Psychology)
(i) Measurement: Measurements of intelligence and capacities have vital importance in the field of education, with the help of psychology various measurements have been fixed, and they occupy a very important place. Intelligence quotient and education quotient have great importance in the field of educational psychology. The teachers make a good deal of use of it. They try to use the measurements in grouping their disciples. (BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Educational Psychology)
(j) Mental Hygiene and Abnormalities: Mental Hygiene and Abnormalities are important subjects of study in Educational Psychology. The teacher has to impart a special type of education to abnormal children. He is also able to remove the abnormalities with the help of his knowledge of mental hygiene. (BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Educational Psychology)
(k) Study of the Behaviour: Psychology is the science of the study of behaviour. Through the activities, a person expresses his various attitudes towards society. Education is also an activity or a process. Under Educational Psychology these activities and behaviours are made a subject of study. Through is of great importance. these activities the power of learning of the students gain strength. In this regard, it is of great importance. (BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Educational Psychology)
(l) Study of the Behaviour: All the students are not the same, Students differ from each other, physically as well as psychological. The teacher takes advantage of this study and while paying individual attention to the students, takes advantage of his knowledge of the individual differences. From this point of view, the study of individual differences has a vital place in the field of study of Educational Psychology. (BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Educational Psychology)
(m) Laying down of Curriculum: For proper education; laying down of proper curriculum is very important. The curriculum has to be laid down and constructed, keeping in view the intelligence, age and atmosphere of the education. Psychology helps a lot in laying down and constructing the curriculum. It is in fact, the foundation on which the structure of the curriculum is erected.
In educational psychology, it is always borne in mind that the curriculum should be in accordance with the physical and mental age and capacity of the student. From this point of view, it is also very important.
(n) Paying Attention to Special Attitudes of the Students: It is seen that every student has some special attitude. The teacher has to keep this thing in mind. If the (teacher) does not keep the special attitude of the student in mind, the purpose of education gets defeated. From this point of view, special attention is to being responsible. paid to the special aptitude of the student. Educational Psychology undertakes this responsibility. (BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Educational Psychology)
(o) Solution of the problems of Educational Psychology: If we cast & a bird’s eye view at the solution of Educations’. In psychology, we come across the following problems which deserve mention and study-
(i) Problems of Behaviour: Under the problems come the natural instincts, tendencies, reflex actions, nature, control upon behaviour and other psycho-bodily activities. (BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Educational Psychology)
(ii) Problems of Learning: The methods of learning, circumstances of learning, transfer of learning, forms of learning, mental activities and their relationship and also their growth and development are studied under this heading. All those problems have to be solved for a successful education. (BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Educational Psychology)
(iii) Problems of Individual Differences: Causes of individual differences and their forms, classification of various people according to their character, needs of different people and problems of statistical methods etc., are studied under this heading. All these problems are also important for Educational Psychology.
In short, we may say that the following subjects come under the scope of study of Educational Psychology:
- It has to find out ways and means for activating the knowledge of students reading in schools.
- To discover and find out new programmes and projects for developing experiences of the children.
- To analyse the emotional difficulties of the children and find out their causes. The effort is also made to help and make the students acquire healthy habits. Ways and means are found out for this job also.
- An attempt is made to make teaching and educating conform to the innate tendencies of the children and remove their difficulties. (BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Educational Psychology)
- To coordinate the teaching in accordance with the interest and aptitude of the children, and try to develop it.
- To study the natural aptitudes, instincts, capabilities, interests, and special abilities of the children and create such an atmosphere in which the students may develop them.
- To find out the cause of the abnormal behaviour of the children and to try to remove those abnormalities.
- To find out the rules and regulations governing the physical, intellectual; emotional and social developments of the children and try to educate them in accordance with these traits.
- To conduct objective tests and try to standardise them. This has to be done in order to test the success of the educational programme. (BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Educational Psychology)
- To throw light on the phycological defects of the teacher and other defects of the art of teaching, and find out ways and means for their removal. (BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Educational Psychology)
- To make the thorough and minute study of the entire atmosphere of a child including home, neighbourhood, companions, school, literature, cinema, society and other things.
- To provide educational guidance to the students.
Difference between Psychology and Educational Psychology
The following is the difference between psychology and educational psychology:
- Psychology is an independent discipline, while education psychology is a branch of psychology.
- Psychology is a science, and educational psychology is an applied science.
- The scope of psychology is wide, it studies the basic, motivating and controlling factors of the behaviour of human beings, animals and birds; while the scope of educational psychology is narrow, it studies only the basic, motivating and controlling factors of human behaviour. (BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Educational Psychology)
- Psychology studies the behaviour of man in different fields of human life, while educational psychology studies his behaviour in educational circumstances only. (BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Educational Psychology)
- The principles and laws of psychology are applicable to different aspects of human life, while the principles and laws of educational psychology are applied in the educational field only.