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Bed 2nd Year What do you mean by maxims of Teaching?

Bed 2nd Year What do you mean by maxims of Teaching?

Bed 2nd Year What do you mean by maxims of Teaching?

Bed 2nd Year What do you mean by maxims of Teaching?: In this post, you will learn about Bed 2nd Year What do you mean by maxims of Teaching? In Bed, Teacher Teaching, and Technology one of the most important questions is Bed 2nd Year What do you mean by maxims of Teaching? A2zNotes.com will Provide you best Study material for Bed Teachers, Teaching, and Technology. The Phase of Teaching is an Important Part of Bed Examination.

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Bed 2nd Year What do you mean by maxims of Teaching?
Bed 2nd Year What do you mean by maxims of Teaching?

Meaning and Definition of Maxims of Teaching

Teaching activities and instructional procedures are performed by using maxims of teaching,

The term ‘Maxim of Teaching’ may be defined as rules for presenting difficult terms and concepts to make them easy to comprehend in classroom teaching.

A teacher employs some specific ways to organize teaching activities to make terms and concepts communicable up to the cognition or mental process of learners. (Bed 2nd Year What do you mean by maxims of Teaching?)

The following are the main features of a maxim of teaching:

  1. Teaching maxim helps in organizing teaching activities.
  2. It makes the presentation of terms and concepts easily understandable.
  3. It enables the teacher to make his communication effective for the mental level of the students.
  4. It is an important component of the instructional procedure that is used in designing and presenting content in an effective way.

Types of Maxims of Teaching

Teaching activities and tasks of teaching are organized and performed in various ways. Even a concept is presented in different ways. It is the teacher who decides the way of his teaching activities based on his experiences and insight and in view of the learner’s comprehension level. Therefore awareness of these maxims is essential for teachers. The following are some important Maxims of teaching:

  1. From Simple to complex,
  2. From known to the unknown,
  3. From part of the whole,
  4. From whole to part,
  5. From concert to abstract,
  6. From direct to indirect,
  7. From the particular to general,
  8. From analysis to synthesis,
  9. From empirical to rationale,
  10. From psychological to logical,
  11. To follow nature etc. these can be used vice-versa also.

These maxims of teaching have been developed by the foundations: of philosophy sociology, psychology, and technology these are known as tactics and devices. For example from particular to general the maxims have the same way of organizing activities in educational technology known as ‘From example to rule’ (rule) as a device of teaching and instructional procedure. A brief description of these maxims of teaching has been provided in the following paragraphs :

1. From Simple to Complex-The nature of this maxim is more psychological, that a child learns easy things and avoids complex or difficult contents. Under this maxim, simple terms and concepts are taught first then proceed to complex things. In language teaching, simple sentence awareness is given to practice and then proceeds to form complex sentences. In teaching history and geography, local awareness is provided after related complex facts and concepts are taught.

Similarly in maths teaching simple problems or simple questions are given to practice after that complex type questions and problems are taught. A teacher should have an understanding of the development stage of the students and individual differences. The content of teaching is divided into simple and difficult components. The teacher can use the maxim of teaching in his presentation easily.

2. From Known To Unknown- It is based on the Apperceptive Mass Theory of learning. It assumes that student-acquired knowledge is given by linking with actuarial knowledge; the student can learn better and retain it for a longer time. A teacher introducer’s new use en liking with previous knowledge, thus he makes use of maxim from known to unknown.

The alphabet is taught by liking objects and things that a child knows. The addition is taught after providing the awareness of numbers. The characteristics and functions of roots and leaves are taught by showing them. The student may easily learn and retain them for a longer period. (Bed 2nd Year What do you mean by maxims of Teaching?)

(3-4) From part to Whole and Whole to Part—The maxim of teaching is
given by this Gestalt school of psychology or perception. In human perception, we perceive the whole first then to part. The whole is perceived first then its parts. For example, if we perceive a picture of a thing, the whole is such a way that students can perceive the whole and then its parts because the whole attracts first. In language teaching sentence functions as a unit. The words, letters, and spellings are its parts. The sentence is perceived first then its words and letters. In geography teaching, the regional method is based on the maxim whole to part. To provide awareness of the region is given after countries of the region are taught.

B.F. Skinner gives emphasis on the part to whole maxims of teaching. He assumes that a student learns better if the content is presented in small parts. The first fundamental principle of these strategies principles of small steps or parts. Both maxims of teaching are used in preparing instructional material.

5. From Concrete to Abstract-It is also the psychological rule of learning. The child has a curiosity to know about objects and things that are around him. The learning of a child form perception and experience about the objects. After perception, concepts are formed which are partially concrete and partially abstract in nature. At the primary stage, letters and numbers are presented in concrete form and then proceed in their abstract form. A child develops his vocabulary by perceiving domestic things, objects of this social and physical environment. It is a natural procedure of learning. The teacher should try to present his content in concrete form then its abstract form. In arithmetic teaching numbers and their rules are taught with the help of things and objects. In history and geography time sense and place sense can be easily developed by using timelines, maps, and charts.

6. From Direct or Seen to Indirect—The awareness of certain things and events can not be provided directly or is sometimes difficult. A teacher should take help of things and events which are directly related or in contact. Now terms and concepts can be easily taught by related to their experiences. (Bed 2nd Year What do you mean by maxims of Teaching?)

7. From Particular to General- It is also based on perception psychology. It is said that ‘part conveys the whole’. In the communication part of the whole is used, even in preparing instruction material for teaching parts are used. These parts are arranged in logical order so that they can convey the whole. Teaching activities are organized and performed in parts logically so that these can function psychologically as well. There is a certain situation in which whole to the part maxim of teaching is used. The maxims part to whole and whole to part are given by the Gestalt School of psychology. Part is important in communication and whole in presentation or visual concepts. It is also known as the rule system and the ruling system.

8. From Analysis to Synthesis-This maxim is given by connective psychology. The analysis is a mental process. Every phenomenon is multi-dimension, therefore it is to be analyzed into its components. An effective teacher first analyses the various aspects of content and then tries to integrate or synthesize them. The analysis and synthesis both are mental processes. This maxim is most frequently used in creative teaching. (Bed 2nd Year What do you mean by maxims of Teaching?)

9. From Empirical to Rationale-A child learns by doing or experiencing. Learning by doing is the most popular teaching technique. The observation of a child has a significant role in his learning process. A child acquires most of his learning through observations. Learning by imitation is also based on observation. In the process of education, empirical and logical both type of knowledge is essential. The activities of teaching should be so organized that can provide new experiences through observation then teaching should proceed with a logical aspect of it. The maxim also develops a logical attitude among children the maxim of teaching is employed in teaching languages mathematics science and social subjects.

10. From Psychological to Logical Sequence-The maxims of teaching are commonly used in designing instruction material. A teacher plans his lesson by organizing teaching activities logically so that a child may learn by the sequence. A psychological sequence varies from child to child. (Bed 2nd Year What do you mean by maxims of Teaching?)

A teacher analyses teaching content into sub-content or topics, each sub-topics is analyzed into units. The sub-topics are arranged in a logical sequence then units or each sub-topic are further arranged in a logical sequence. This sequence should function psychologically. It may suit students learning. In ancient times logical sequence was given importance but now psychological sequence is considered most important in the teaching-learning process. In a programmed institution, the material workability of a logical sequence is evaluated psychologically by preparing a scalogram. In psychological sequence, several factors are taken into consideration interest age-level, comprehension level, and curiosity. previous knowledge (entering behaviors) and learning of the children or learners. The psychological sequence is a natural way of learning. It may be used logically in the psychological sequence.

Bed 2nd Year What do you mean by maxims of Teaching?

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