BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Personality
BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Personality: In this post, we will learn about BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Personality? In Bed 2nd Year there is one of the most important questions comes from Growing up as a Learner. BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Personality? Teaching is a social and professional activity. It is a process of development. Teaching is a system of actions that induce learning through interpersonal relationships. and all the rest you will study in this Blog.
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Meaning and Definition of Personality
The personality of a person is generally perceived as his physical get-up, behavioral skill, and the status that he enjoys in society. However, it is something more than this. The form of personality has been analyzed chiefly by philosophers, anthropologists, sociologists, and psychologists. (BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Personality)
Ancient Indian scriptures Vedas have accepted human personality as the development of physique, mind, and soul. In the Upanishads, personality is considered to be the sum total of Annamaya Kosa and Pranamaya Kosa (Physical Self), Manomaya Kosa and Vijnanamaya Kosa (Mental Self) and Anandamaya Kosa and Atman (Spiritual Self).
In Yoga philosophy, personality is considered to be the sum total of body, mind, intellect, ego, and soul. According to Indian philosophy, the more a person’s body, mind, intellect, ego, and soul have developed, the more developed his personality is. However, today we are neither able to understand the form of mind, intellect, ego, and soul, nor are able to measure their development so we are not able to understand the concept of personality in this form.
The western concept of personality is different from that of Indians. The English word personality’ is formed from the Latin word ‘persona’, which means mask or artificial face. The actors in dramas wore masks, and the part they played was called their personality. Thus, in the beginning, the meaning of personality was taken to be the external form. During the Roman period, the internal form of a person too came to be included in it. (BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Personality)
In modern times, western anthropologists, sociologists, and psychologists attempted to understand the form of a person’s personality from the very beginning. Of them, psychologists have also developed methods to measure one’s personality, so we shall try to understand the meaning of personality from their viewpoint. But, psychologists do not hold uniform views on the concept of personality. (BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Personality)
We can classify their different opinions into four groups of approaches:
- Omnibus Approach: Some psychologists consider personality as the sum total of hereditary physical and mental traits and acquired characters Valentine has defined personality in the form. In his words:
Personality is the sum total of innate and acquired dispositions. –Valentine
Morton Prince has described it more clearly. In his words:
Personality is the sum total of the biological innate dispositions, impulses, tendencies, aptitudes, and instincts of the individual and the dispositions and tendencies, acquired by experience. -Morton Prince
If we look carefully, it becomes clear that this viewpoint includes only and biological and acquired traits of persons and not their interaction with social and cultural environments. So this viewpoint is incomplete in itself.
- Integrative and Organisational Approach: Some psychologists consider personality as the integration and organization of traits and dispositions in place of the sum total of different traits and dispositions; an integration and organization determine other traits of a person. (BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Personality)
McCurdy has defined personality in this form. In his words:
Personality is an integration of patterns (interests) that gives a peculiar individual trend to the behavior of the organism. -McCurdy
Biesanj and Biesanj have described it more clearly:
Personality is the organization of a person’s habits, attitudes, and traits that arises from the interplay of biological, social, and cultural factors. -Biesanj and Biesanj
If we look at it carefully, we find that even though this viewpoint is incomplete, it does not give a whole glimpse of a person’s personality. (BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Personality)
- Hierarchical Approach: Psychologist William James has considered four steps in the development of personality. According to him, at first, the material self of a person develops followed by the social self, and spiritual self, and at last pure ego develops. By the development of material development, he meant the development of body and hereditary traits; and by social development, he meant the social development attained as a result of participation in social activities.
According to him, when a person shifts his attention from the material world and social bonds to God, his spiritual development takes place, And when the spiritual development results in knowledge of self, it is the final step of a person’s personality.
However, the reality is that all physical, social, and spiritual developments take place together, and it is not reasonable to order them in these steps. Then, what is the pure form of ego, it is also out of reach for a common man. As such, even this concept does not deserve to be accepted. (BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Personality)
- Adjustment Approach: Some psychologists consider personality as the proficiency by which the persons adjust themselves to their environment. Boring has defined personality in this form:
Personality is an individual consistent adjustment to his environment. -Boring and others
Shaffer and Shoben too have described the same thing in other words:
The personality of an individual may be defined by his persistent tendencies to make certain qualities and kinds of adjustments. -Shafer and Shoben
If personality is considered as the ability to adjust to the environment, it amounts to acceptance of only one trait, while personality is a multi-dimensional concept. So, this viewpoint is also incomplete in itself.
True Concept of Personality
Psychologist Alloport deeply studied all viewpoints and related definitions regarding personality and reached the conclusion that a person’s personality is the dynamic organization of his psycho-physical systems which determine his direction of adjustment to his environment. He has defined personality in this form.
Personality is the dynamic organization within the individual of those psycho-physical systems that determine his unique adjustment to his environment. –G.W. Allport
By dynamic organization, Allport meant flexibility, and by the psycho-physical system, he meant the working of mind and body in combined form, and by unique adjustment, he meant the unique behavior of a person. This definition includes both organizational and conative aspects of personality, so most scholars are in agreement with this view of Allport,
However, we are not in agreement with this view. In this context, the first thing to note is that personality is not an organization of a psycho-physical system only, it also includes several acquired traits. Second, the meaning of personality is not to adjust to the environment only, rather it creates an environment. (BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Personality)
Some scholars take personality as the aggregate of all physical, mental, intellectual, and spiritual powers and traits of it person which guide his behavior in different situations 10 a definite way. It is evident that personality is not a sum total of different powers and traits, but an aggregate, it is a special type of structure. (BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Personality)
As the coming together of bricks, cement and concrete do not make a building, in the same way, the sum total of different traits does not form the personality. It can be said on this basis that a personality is a whole man.
However, considering personality as a whole man also presents a problem that is understanding it in parts. As a result, we will have to return to the place where we began. The need is to determine the correct concept of personality. Psychologists should take the Indian viewpoint as a hypothesis and verify its truth. Perhaps, then only they wilt be able to clarify the concept of personality.
Nature and Characteristics of Personality
The psychologists are not in agreement regarding the concept of personability. How can then the nature of personality be described in a definite form? However, they have different views of different psychologists regarding personably and the facts that they have found out about it may be presented as the nature of personality or characteristics of personality.
- Personality is a Multi-dimensional Concept: A person’s personality comprises both his innate powers and acquired traits. The important among them are: physical and mental health, self-consciousness, will flower, sociability, adjustability, and developmental continuity. The more factors a person has the more developed his personality is.
- The Permanent Traits and Abilities of a Person are part of His Personality: Permanent traits are those qualities that are always expressed in one’s behavior. And permanent abilities mean those abilities which a person always makes use of. It has been seen that persons often assume some traits according to time and circumstances which they forsake with the change in time and circumstances. Psychologists do not consider such traits as part of their personality.
Psychologists consider only those traits as part of a person’s personality with which he is always attached and which are always expressed in his thought and behavior. (BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Personality)
- Personality is the Integrated Structure of Different Traits and Abilities: The personality of a person is not the sum total of hrs innate powers and acquired traits and abilities; rather it is a specific structure. As the sum total of bricks and cement does not make a house rather a house is a specific structure made from them in the sales, a person’s personality is not the sum total of his traits and abilities but is a specific structure made of them.
And as the concept of the house is in itself a complete organized structure, in the same way, the concept of personality is also complete and organized in itself. (BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Personality)
- The personality of a Person is Different and Unique: As the houses made from bricks, cement, iron, and wood are different from one another, so are the personalities of different persons made from the integration of different traits and abilities. The houses can be similar to one another, but the personality of a different type, complexion, disposition, values, and ideals, and has a unique type of thinking, a unique type of viewpoint towards society and nation, etc. All these come together to form a unique personality. (BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Personality)
- The Development of Personality of a Person Depends on Both, the Heredity and Environment: A person’s personality comprises his internal and external factors, and the development of these two depends on both heredity and environment.
Heredity determines what a person is: strong or weak, tall or short, fair or dark, beautiful or ugly, more intelligent or less intelligent: and the environment determines, what d person possesses: knowledge or ignorance, ability or inability, strong willpower or weak will power, sociability or un-sociability, adjustment or maladjustment, etc.
- Personality is not the Sum Total of Heredity and Environment but the Product of Their Multiplication: Both heredity and environment are essential for the development of a person’s personality. We all know that man is born with certain innate powers on the basis of which his development takes place. We also know that for the development of these powers, he needs an external environment. (BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Personality)
For example, man is born with the instinct of gregariousness but sociability develops in him only when he is kept in the social environment, comes in contact with other people, and interacts with other people. In the absence of any of these, sociability cannot develop in him. In other words, Personality=Heredity X Environment. It is dear that in the absence of any one of these the personality cannot be developed. (BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Personality)
- Personality Develops from Birth to Death: A Person is connected with several people, groups, and institutions. These person groups and institutions always keep shaping and so the mode of his life which enhances his knowledge and his personality is developed personality is developing. Of course, the foundation of the personality of a person is laid in infancy, built up during childhood and adolescence, and after that, a finishing touch is given to it live long.
Types of Personality
Different disciples have determined different types of personalities. We shall describe only those types which have been determined by the psychologists. (BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Personality)
[I] Classification on the Basis of Physical Constitution
Some psychologists have classified personality on the basis of physical constitution. Of them, we have already discussed the theory of physical constitution as propounded by W.H. Sheldon.
Now we present the classification done by psychologist Kretschmer.
- Asthenic: Kretschmer has placed those persons in this group who are tall and weak and often like to live alone and enjoy criticizing others, but do not tolerate their own criticism.
- Athletic: Kretschmer has placed those persons in this group who are healthy, sound, and strong and have the capacity to adjust well. (BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Personality)
- Pynic: Kretschmer has placed those persons in this group who are short in height but healthy easy going and entertaining.
[II] Classification on the Basis of Nature
Psychologist Gallen has classified persons on the basis of their nature into four classes:
- Chalenic: Gallen has placed strong and offensive nature persons in this group. The persons of this group become angry soon.
- Melancholy: Gallen has placed the persons suffering from anxiety in this group. Such persons are often melancholic, suppressed, and pessimist. (BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Personality)
- Phlegmatic: Gallen has placed down-hearted persons in this group. Such persons are often peace-loving and lazy.
- Sanguine: Gallen has placed the enthusiastic persons in this group. Such persons are optimists and active.
[lIl] Classification on the Basis of Values
Psychologist Spranger has classified values into six groups and on their basis, has classified personality too into six groups.
- Theoretical: Spranger has placed those persons in this group who are desirous of attaining every knowledge, attach importance to principles, and abide by the ideals even when suffering some difficulties. Such persons are often impractical.
- Economical: Spranger has placed those persons in this group who are desirous of material comforts, attach more importance to money, and can do anything for earning money. Such people are often practical.
- Social: Spranger has placed those persons in this group who take importance to society and social relations; they are kind, renouncers, and benevolent: they are social workers and social reformers. Such persons behave very efficiently.
- Political: Spranger has placed those persons in this group who take interest in politics, want to be attached to the government, and want participation in the government. Such persons are very efficient in political movements.
- Religious: Spranger has placed those persons in this group who believe in self-satisfaction and benevolence. God fears divine powers and abides by spiritual values. Such persons are very efficient in poetical benvement
- Aesthetic: Spranger has placed those persons in this group who love beauty. Such persons are often inclined toward art, music, and dance. (BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Personality)
[IV] Classification on the Basis of Social Interaction
Psychologist Jung classified persons on the basis of Social Interaction into their classes:
- Introvert: Jung has placed those persons in this group who are self-contented, self-thinker and solitary, and shy by nature. They are also sensitive, duty-bound, and less spoken. Such persons are less efficient in public dealings.
- Extrovert: Jung has placed those persons in this group who are society-centered, practical, courageous, anxiety-free, and optimistic. Such persons take interest in social tasks and gain popularity.
- Ambivert: The persons with more characteristics of introvert persons are included in the introvert group, and those with more characteristics of an extrovert are included in the extrovert group, and the persons in whom the training of both introvert and extrovert combine in almost equal measure, are placed in the ambivert group.
[V] Classification on the Basis of Adjustment
Most psychologists accept personality ill the form of ability or adjustment. Every person is born with certain innate powers. When he comes into contact with his external environment, he has to face many external forces and problems. For the fulfillment of his biological and psychological needs, he has to overcome these environmental problems and powers. The efforts that he makes for this are known as adjustments. Different persons adjust differently. On this is, psychologists have divided people into two classes:
- Well-Adjusted: The persons who are able to maintain a balance between their internal and external powers and needs are called well-adjusted personalities. The behavior of such persons is very balanced and in conformity to society
- Maladjusted: The persons, who are not able to maintain a balance between their internal and external powers and needs, and incline themselves in this or that way, are called maladjusted personalities. The behavior of such persons is very imbalanced and often anti-social. (BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Personality)