BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Sequential Development of Human Being
BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Sequential Development of Human Being: In this post, we will learn about BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Sequential Development of Human Being? In Bed 2nd Year there is one of the most important questions comes from Growing up as a Learner. BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Sequential Development of Human Being? Teaching is a social and professional activity. It is a process of development. Teaching is a system of actions that induce learning through interpersonal relationships. and all the rest you will study in this Blog.
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BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Development
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Sequential Development of Human Being
Before we start to discuss the sequential development of man, we think it necessary to explain the following four facts:
- The sequence of human development is generally divided into four stages-birth to 6 years, 6-12 years, 12-18 years, and 18 years onwards. (BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Sequential Development of Human Being)
- Though the process of human development takes place right from conception, from an educational viewpoint, it is more important from birth to 18 years of age. Therefore, we shall specifically discuss the development taking place during this stage.
- We shall discuss the general development of average children from birth to 18 years of age.
- There are different aspects of human development: physical, mental, linguistic, emotional, social, cultural, economic, political, character and spiritual. From an educational viewpoint, development in physical, mental, emotional, social and moral aspects is important, so we shall study these aspects only.
Physical and Motor Development of Human Being
Man’s physical development is meant by the growth and incremental changes in physical structure, skeletal system, muscles, nervous system, heart, circulatory system, respiratory system, digestive system, and endocrine glands together with other psychophysical activities. The quantitative changes in different body organs are called growth, and the improvement in their working system is called development. (BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Sequential Development of Human Being)
The growth in bones and muscles enhances motor skills in a child, while the growth in the nervous system brings emotional stability. The different types of changes occur due to the excretion of hormones from endocrine glands, and these physical changes influence his learning process and behavior. (BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Sequential Development of Human Being)
Physical development of a child in the womb depends on genes as got by the mother in that state, as well as her health and mental state, physical development is rapid during the course of pregnancy; the head first, and then the stomach and legs develop later. When an infant enters life at the age of 9 months in the womb, it is called his birth.
The physical development of a child is very rapid from birth to 3 years the first year, an infant’s bones, muscles, and other body organs are developed so that he becomes capable of sitting, standing, and then walking on his legs.
By the 3 years, his action senses and cognitive senses become active, and he undergoes development of as much as 60%. The physical organs development rate is between 3 and 6 years of age. But the physical organs which have devel earlier become strong and their working capability enhance. (BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Sequential Development of Human Being)
Between 6 and 9 years of age, a child experiences growth in both weight and height. He also gains physical capability. At this level, 28 of his teeth show up. Between 9 and 12 years, a child’s previously got physical development becomes strengthened, and the remaining 4 teeth grow. (BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Sequential Development of Human Being)
During adolescence (12-18 years), an adolescent experiences an increase in both height and weight, as well as growth in muscles as they become stronger too. Between 12-14 years, girls experience more growth than boys, while the process reverses during 14-18 years when boys grow more rapidly than girls.
At this age, the bones of both boys and girls get strong and all their internal and external organs are fully developed. In India, the gonad glands become active in girls at 13 years and in boys at 15 years, as a result of which the procreative organs of adolescents become developed, and their sex instinct becomes active.
Now they are first attracted to their own physical organs and try to make them strong and beautiful. From a physical viewpoint, girls attain full womanhood at the age of 16 years, and boys attain full manhood at the age of 18 years.
By 18 years of age, a man’s physical growth is complete, but the development of physical activities continues after that. After about the age of 50 years, his body. organs start to become less active, and his action and cognitive senses become weaker.
Mental and Cognitive Development of Human Being
Man’s mental development is meant by the development of mental activities and abilities. Under it are included the development of different mental activities and abilities such as intelligence, sensation, observation, perception, interest, attention, imagination, thinking, reasoning, judgment, problem-solving, memory, forgetting, etc.
In the words of James Dever: “Progressive appearance and organization of mental abilities and functions in course of the individual’s passage from birth to maturity is called mental development.” However, it has been seen that the mental abilities which an individual uses continuously and regularly, keep on developing even after physical development has fully taken place; it is another thing that they develop at a slower rate. (BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Sequential Development of Human Being)
In the womb, a child’s mental development depends on genes and the mother’s mental health. According to Indian spiritual philosophers, a child grows in the womb together with the traits of the previous birth, and these are directly influenced by the thinking of his mother, which together influence his mental development.
From birth to 3 years of age, a child’s mental development takes place very rapidly. As far as his brain’s development is concerned, it develops from simple to complex, its cells increase in number, and so far as his mental activities are concerned, a child starts to identify the people, animals, birds, and objects in his environment in the first two years, and concepts start to form in his mind, and he starts to imitate the sounds of words uttered to him.
But this identification is limited to race. For example, a child thinks that all white animals are cows, but he does not distinguish between them. In the third year; mental faculties develop even more rapidly, and by the time he completes three years of age, almost all types of mental activities can be done to him; the faculties of attention, sensation, perception, and imagination start to develop, and his memory to expands. (BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Sequential Development of Human Being)
By the time he completes three years, he can understand the meaning of day and night, today and tomorrow vaguely. His tendency of curiosity to becomes active and he starts to ask questions ‘what’ and ‘how’. After five years, a child’s reasoning and logic start to develop and he now asks ‘why’. (BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Sequential Development of Human Being)
Between 6 and 9 years of age, the faculties of thinking and reasoning are developed. By the time he completes the age of 6 years, his sensation capability is developed, and he starts to undertake logical thinking; he has developed the concepts of place, weight, time, and self. He can now distinguish between boy and girl.
At this age, he starts to understand the realities of the environment, takes interest in his study, and self-confidence is developed in him so far as his power of expression is concerned.
Between 9 and 12 years, he develops the ability of analysis-synthesis, which is very helpful in concept formation. During this period, the concepts of birth and death are formed, and his creative power is developed. He also develops the ability to problem-solving.
Between 12 and 18 years of age, the intelligence of adolescents is fully developed, and their faculties of attention, memory, imagination, thinking, logic, analysis, synthesis, and abstract thinking are strengthened. The abilities of problem-solving are all the more developed, and he develops abstract concepts.
By the age of 15 years, adolescents experience a change in interests and aptitudes, which become stable during 16 and 18 years of age.
After 18 years of age, the development of logic, analysis-synthesis, and problem-solving abilities depend on the number of opportunities that an individual gets. About 50 years of age, the power of memory starts to decline and forgetting enhances, yet his powers of logic, analysis, synthesis, and problem-solving continue to develop and enhance continuously.
The Swiss psychologist, Jean Piaget has analyzed human mental development in the form of cognitive development. He has expressed cognitive development as concept formation. He has divided cognitive development into four stages:
- Sensory Motor Stage: As per Piaget children from birth to two years of age obtain primary experience through their senses. Piaget termed this stage the sensory-motor stage.
According to him, the cognitive development of a child between birth and two years of age takes place in the following six sub-stages.
(i) Stage of Reflex Actions: This stage lasts from birth to 30 days of age. During it, a child undertakes only reflex actions. Of these actions, sucking an object is the strongest.
(ii) Stage of Primary Circular Responses: This stage covers 1 month to 4 months of age. During this stage, a child’s reflex actions are transformed and repeated by experiences or sensations to some extent, and they are thus coordinated.
These responses are called primary because these are the chief responses of a child’s physique, so they are also called circular because they are frequently repeated by a child. During this stage, a child expresses his experiences fearlessly.
(iii) Stage of Secondary Circular Responses: This stage lasts from 4 months to 6 months of age. In this stage, a child touches objects and moves them here and there, besides he undertakes such responses which give him happiness. By the time a child is 6 months old, he starts to know about the absence of an object.
(iv) Stage of Coordination of Secondary Schemata: This stage occurs between 8 months to 12 months of age. During it, a child starts to distinguish between goal and means to achieve it. Also, he starts to imitate others’ actions. During it, a child learns schema, that is, the organization pattern of behaviors, and starts to generalize them too.
(v) Stage of Tertiary Circular Response: This is the stage from 12 months to 18 months of age. During it, a child learns the qualities of objects by trial and error. (BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Sequential Development of Human Being)
(vi) Stage of Discovery of New Means through Mental Combination: This stage lasts from 18 months to 24 months of age. During it, a child is able to st understand the existence of an object even in its absence.
- Pre-operational Stage: Piaget has called the age between 2 years to 7 years a pre-operational stage so far as cognitive development is concerned. (BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Sequential Development of Human Being)
He has divided this stage into two sub-sages, as follows:
(i) Pre-conceptional Period: This period occurs between 2 years and 4 years of age. During it, a child relates the surrounding objects, animals, and words: All this he mostly learns by imitation and plays way. As per Piaget, children up to the age of 4 years think that all objects, whether lifeless, are live. He called this phenomenon ‘animism’.
The other characteristics of cognitive development taking place during this stage are that a child thinks he is right and he understands st that the entire world surrounds him. Piaget has called it ‘ego-centrism’.
(ii) Intuitive Period: This period lasts from 4 years to 7 years of age. A child learns the language during this and starts to apply thinking and logic, but his thought process is not reasonable and sequential. For example, he understands 2 x 2 = 4, but not 4/2 = 2. By the time a child completes 6 years of age, he starts to understand concrete as well as abstract concepts.
- Stage of Concrete Operation: Piaget has called the age from 7 years age the stage of concrete operation. During this stage, a child is practical and realistic. Though he starts to cultivate logic and problem capabilities, he applies these to concrete problems and is unable to think abstract problems. During this stage, a child sequences objects on the basis of attributes classify them; however, his thought process is not yet sequential.
- Stage of Formal Operations: This stage pertains from 12 years of age to adulthood. By the time a child is 12 years, his mental faculties are matured, his thought process is sequential, and as he gains in age, his experience expands, and so expands his problem-solving capability. Piaget has called it formal conceptual thinking.
According to him, during this stage, a child understands the meaning of symbolic words, forms, and analogies, and takes high fancy flights in the construction of abstract concepts. According to Piaget, this process of concept formation continues in the life of man without interference, however, its type and level depending on his education and experiences.
Language Development of Human Being
The acoustic means that man has developed to express and convey his feelings and thoughts is called language. As far as the power of speech is concerned, it is innate in man, but he learns the language which is used around him. Language development is meant the development of faculties by which he knows specific types of sound, uses those sounds and expresses and conveys his thoughts.
Language is the basis of man’s development. Whatever mankind has developed so far is due to the development of language Educational process proceeds by language, we cannot provide education in the absence of language.
There is a sequence of language learning: hearing, speaking, reading, and writing. As a child grows in age, his physical and mental development takes place, and his linguistic development to takes place. From birth to six months, a child makes only a few sounds, such as crying, laughing, and some meaningless instinctive sounds. A child cries when he comes out of the womb.
At about 8 months, his vocal cords get the ability to speak.
At 12 months, he imitates his elders and starts to utter some incomplete words like ma, pa, etc. In the second year, he starts to speak words pertaining to close relatives and objects, such as mummy, papa, milk, bread, banana, etc. His vocabulary expands as he grows in age. (BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Sequential Development of Human Being)
By 2 years of age, his vocabulary is as large as 200-300 words. Now he starts to utter two-word sentences. In the third year, he learns about 350 words that are used in his environment, and he starts to speak 3-words and 4-words sentences.
By the time he has completed three years, he starts to learn the naming words in the environment and he also learns some pronouns and verbs. By the age of 4 years, he learns another 350 new words. In the fifth year, a child knows the names of ordinary objects, animals, birds, colors, etc., and thus learns another 600 words.
Also, he starts to speak 4-words, 5-words, and 6-words sentences and can reproduce short stories told to him. In a 4-year-old child, the muscles, action, and perception senses become so strong that he can be taught reading-writing together. By the time he has completed the age of 6 years, he can start to read and write one and two-word sentences.
However, all this depends on the education of the child.
At present, children start to go to nursery schools at the age of 2 years to 3 years, and they cultivate the ability to do this at the age of 4 ears itself. At this stage, a child comes out of the family and enters school. As a result, his circle expands. He talks to others, interacts with teachers, and gains language abilities in the class.
As a result, his vocabulary expands rapidly between 6 and 9 years of age, and by the time he is 12, he might have learned about 5,000 words. ‘With this, he starts to hear and speak 5-words, 6-words or more words sentences, and his oral language develops rapidly. He expresses his views and understands the views expressed by others.
At this stage, a child undergoes rapid development in reading and writing skills. A 6-7-year old child can read and understand 4 and 5-words sentences, and his writing style starts to develop. An 8 and 9-year-old child expresses the things he has read or heard, can describe objects and incidents, and can write the things which he has heard or read, only he needs some guidance.
During adolescence, between 12 and 18 years of age, the vocabulary of a child expands rapidly. At this age, he starts to distinguish between words and can distinguish synonyms and their meanings. At this stage, his oral and written expressions become clearer. Of course, the extent of this development depends on his environment and education.
Some children can start to write short stories and some rhymes too. The extent of opportunities that an individual gets in the application of language, results in higher or lower language development. However, there is no upper limit to linguistic development.
Emotional Development of Human Being
Generally, a feeling produced from an object or action is called emotion, such as love, hatred, fear, etc. The psychologist McDougall has explained that there is some emotion behind all instinctive behaviors, such as fear behind fleeing.
However, all feelings are not emotions, only those feelings that are developed intensely and influenced the behavior of man are called emotions. (BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Sequential Development of Human Being)
In the words of English and English: “Emotion is a complex feeling state accompanied by characteristic or glandular activities.”
Psychologists have explained that with man’s physical and mental development, his emotions too are developed.
The psychologist Bridges found in his studies that a child at birth has only common excitement, and by the time he is three months old, he develops the emotions of pleasure, joy, pain, grief, etc. In the first year, he develops love, disgust, hatred, anger, and fear; on completion of 2 years, he develops jealousy, and on completion of 3 years, he develops curiosity.
By the completion of 4 years, almost all main emotions are developed, and they become strong by the age of 6 years.