BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Slow Learner
BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Slow Learner: In this post, we will learn about BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Slow Learner? In Bed 2nd Year there is one of the most important questions comes from Growing up as a Learner. BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Slow Learner? Teaching is a social and professional activity. It is a process of development. Teaching is a system of actions that induce learning through interpersonal relationships. and all the rest you will study in this Blog.
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Meaning and Definition of Slow Learner
Slow learners constitute an appreciable fraction of our population. As Burl (1973) has rightly pointed out the term ‘backward’ or ‘slow learner’ is reserved for those children who are unable to cope with the work normally expected of their age group. Kirk (1962) took the ‘rate of learner’ as the basis for identifying slow learners.
According to him, slow learners, gifted, and the average children can be classified according to their rate of learning. He also strictly refused to equate slow learners with mentally retarded because the former is capable of achieving a moderate degree of academic success even though at a slower rate than the average child.
As an adult, a slow learner usually becomes self-supporting, independent, and socially adjusted: but in the early stage, he adapts himself to the regular class programme which fits ill with his slower learning ability.
The term ‘slow learner’ is frequently used to cover various groups of children otherwise referred to as ‘dull’. ‘retarded’ or ‘educationally subnormal’. In the present circumstances, it is used more widely to indicate the fairly large group of children whose learning is slowed down. by one or more factors of which limited ability may be one.
The common factor among all pupils seen was some measure of educational retardation, the contributing factors being manifold e.g., cultural and poverty, family inadequacies, and parental disharmony. Pupils from such homes as these may well function as ‘slow learners’ even though their intellectual potential may be considerably higher.
Previously psychologists held that slow learning is directly related to intellectual ability. But recent studies in this regard revealed that heredity alone is not responsible for the backwardness of the child, but the environment contributes significantly to the scholastic achievement of the child. (BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Slow Learner)
The backward child is a slow learner and he finds it difficult to keep pace with the normal child in his school work. Taking only I.Q. into consideration, we cannot call a child who is a slow learner, mentally retarded. On the whole, the only difference between a slow learner and the average child is his slower rate.
The slow learner is not discussed in the standard special education textbook. In fact, slow learners are not special education students. Slow learners receive additional supportive services, in the regular classroom, curricula, and learning. Some slow learners are not in special education classrooms because they would education needs. otherwise fail in the regular classroom, even though they do not have special education needs. (BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Slow Learner)
There is no diagnostic or descriptive profile that characterizes die slow learner. Slow learners are described by their specific academic weaknesses. (BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Slow Learner)
During the last several years there has been an increase in the education of slow learners, otherwise known as backward pupils in, schools. These groups as has been said do not come under special education categorization, yet because of their incidence in the classroom, there is a need for prevention and treatment of backwardness whether they are in ordinary schools or in special education classes. (BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Slow Learner)
The word ‘slow learning children’ is a broad generic term as stated by Tansley and Guilford, 1971)
Characteristics of Slow Learner
One of the most frequent complaints about backward children is the weakness of memory. Burt (1946) remarked that all special mental disabilities that hamper educational progress. the most frequent is a weakness in what may be termed long-distance memory. Dull children need to go over material more times before it is fixed in their minds, and more frequent revision is required to prevent forgetting. (BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Slow Learner)
There is no doubt that ESN or slow learning children have poorer powers of retention than average children but it would be a mistake to assume that remedy lies in repetition. (BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Slow Learner)
The quality of imparting initial learning is important:
- Slow learners have limited cognitive capacity. They fail to cope with learning situations and to reason abstractly. Rational thinking becomes practically Impossible. They have the capacity to succeed in rote learning. These children show interest in learning where relationships are clearly demonstrated. With regard to retentive memories, they require more practice and revision in comparison with normal children. (BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Slow Learner)
- One of the pertinent characteristics of slow learners is poor memory. It occurs due to a lack of concentration. It is impossible to say how much a child can learn and retain although he is motivated externally and internally.
Experimental evidence reveals that very often the full children can recall facts about their local cricket team as well as its players.
- Classroom situations include distraction and lack of concentration of slow learners. This typical behavior is also associated with poor motivation Again different studies also report that when the learning material is presented through concrete situations the slow learner’s concentration and attention do not differ significantly from that of a normal child.
- The inability to express his ideas through language is another significant characteristic of a slow learner. A slow learner also lacks imagination and foresight. He faces difficulty to foresee consequences in the future.
- In developing societies, slow learners invite social as well as educational problems. Of course, some dull children are very poor in scholastic achievements in school. Their performance is not satisfactory.
But some children who come from sophisticated homes show good performance because they get help and encouragement from home. This is only possible at the primary stage of education. But at the secondary stage. the frustrations and failures come from different sources. (BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Slow Learner)
The children develop an attitude of resentment towards the authorities and create problems. This kind of attitude may lead to anti-social behavior in the future. (BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Slow Learner)
The above characteristics of a slow learner are related to three major areas:
- Physical Characteristics
- Weakness of Attention and
- Feeling of Insecurity,
The details of these areas are given in the following paras:
- Physical Characteristics: There are three groups of children who are shown to develop both mentally and physically and three appear to be a slow growth potential resulting in all-around immaturity.
1. The ENS/slow learning children are poor in dressing, using drawing and writing materials and tools. They need large practice in climbing, jumping, skipping, dancing, games, etc. They also need feelings of success and confidence and improved social development. (BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Slow Learner)
2. Many ESN children have better physical development than mental development.
3. Children whose capacity to learn is reduced because of sickness, minor ailments, malnutrition, etc. The children can be screened for sensory defects if any which are not easily observed but affect the learning and adjustment of children. Regular physical and motor development activities can be introduced to benefit these slow learners.
- Weakens of Attention: One cause of poor memory is weakness in attention. These children are restless and destructible. There is evidence of avoidance resulting from premature failure and a consequent dislike of a subject. They often glance at words than read them carefully. Attention may be poor because of mismatched or irrelevant materials. The method of presenting learning materials may not facilitate an accurate perception of them.
One of the ways in which the memory of slow learners can be improved is by ensuring that as many associations are made as possible. These children are weak in this regard. The teacher must therefore pay special attention to getting children to see links that brighter children would probably see for themselves various sensory modalities can be used to present the links and associations.
For example, the word ‘night’ can be the first sequence of letters night. Then visual displaying speaking, asking him to write down, linking it with light, sight, pight. What is important-presenting the material in a way that facilitates the making of generalizations? Meaningful associations are of great importance.
Words can be taught by appropriate actions here, there, down, up, over, and under. The the-slow learner can learn by understanding and then they need more repetition, revision, and practice to retain.
- Feeling of Insecurity: Slow learning children have a feeling of insecurity that arises out of personal inadequacy physical or mental. They are unable to control feelings of aggression or outbursts. The ESN children continuously seek the attention and approval of the teacher. They do experience the need for acceptance from their peer groups.
The isolated child may withdraw still further. School should provide means for successful achievement which will enhance the sense of self-esteem. (BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Slow Learner)
These children are more dependent and have limited capacity for taking responsibility. Opportunities for becoming independent and responsible are to be provided in the school. They are as such not curious if the school can offer security and affection it can go a long way in the education of slow learners. (BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Slow Learner)
On the other hand, children whose basic needs have been inadequately satisfied may be difficult to motivate them to learn. Instead are upset by feelings of hostility and jealousy or riddled with anger for their own failures. They fantasy. use several defenses: immaturity, regression: compensatory activity, withdrawal fantasy.
The characteristics are not directly related to low intelligence so much as to the educational consequences of low intelligence. Educational and social failures are to be avoided in planning group activities in the school.
The teacher in trying to promote social and emotional development must try to recognize where the child is and start from that point. The child has to learn how to control socially unacceptable expressions of temper, jealousy, and egocentricity. The family is of first importance in creating a sense of security. (BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Slow Learner)
The child besides other family conditions (disharmony, separation) feels insufficient share or affection or is disappointed then there is an emotional problem. School can provide the experience of success but the attitude of the family is more important. Parents are not prepared to accept the child’s backwardness. Sometimes they are over-anxious which contributes to educational backwardness.
Classification of Slow Learner Children
These ‘slow learners’ can be placed under three categories: Those who show signs of brain damage or neurological deficit like Aphasias (can see and read the words but cannot say what it means can bear words but cannot give the meaning can hear and see words but cannot write). The use of unaffected sensory apparatus (Vision or Hearing) and hands in building up proper meaningful associations yield positive results in these cases. (BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Slow Learner)
Reports reveal that some children have either been forced to change from their left-handedness to right-handedness or have a ‘Split-literality’ (Crossed-Eye-Hand Dominance), i.e., they have dominant right-handedness with a left eyeness or difference in the perception and shape of tile object through their left and right eyes. This is popularly known as ‘Primary Reading Disability.’
Research has shown that specific reading disabilities (dyslexia) are seen in about 10-12 percent of school-sense children who are intellectually normal. They have a poor sense of self-esteem and some children show signs of mild depression. They have adequate vision, but their reading ability is retarded. Usually, this disability is more pronounced in boys than in girls.
Very often, these children show signs of tension in habitual manipulation of body parts, ad aggressive behavior. These children can memorize and will often spell words or numbers without working on what they are spelling or having a “numbers sense.”
Identification of Slow Learners
The defects of children who are blind, deaf, or physically handicapped are readily apparent to the observers. The handicaps of educationally subnormal or slow learners are not always so obvious. They are less able than most children to meet the normal demands of education and life in modern communities or society. Culturally it is relative. In a less advanced society, even they do not draw attention. They manage well. (BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Slow Learner)
These are as follows:
- Observation Technique: Observation of children’s behavior by the teacher as well as experts may help in identifying slow learners. This observation may be done under simple as well as controllable conditions. While observing children’s behavior, a strict watch can be kept on their reactions to various situations. A child’s behavior is not only observed in the classroom but also on the playground, at home, in the group, etc.
Observation may be done by just watching the child’s behavior directly and by moving along with the child. It should be kept in mind that for this technique, the observer should have the capacity for analysing and interpreting the information has got from his observation. The observation technique is conducive to ascertaining the recreational, occupational, and extracurricular interests of children. (BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Slow Learner)
- Case Study Method: As we know, by this technique, the history of the child his family his early life, and his home environment are revealed. Through this method psychologists also try to study learning difficulties. adjustment problems and behavioral problems of a child. By finding out the causes of such abnormalities in children, psychologists, as well as teaching experts, are able to suggest the best possible remedial measures.
Of course, this is a long-drawn process and psychologists undergo a strain in interviewing such children, their relatives, and parents at short or long intervals. (BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Slow Learner)
- Medical Examination: Before confirmation, the developmental history from early childhood should be meticulously verified by a qualified medical expert or medical practitioner. Under street physical and medical examination, the anomalies, disabilities, and handicaps can be highlighted. (BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Slow Learner)
- Scholastic Tests: Evaluation or deficiencies in school achievement can be possible through scholastic tests. These tests can throw light on areas like arithmetic, reading, spelling, composition, writing, language and comprehension,
General and specific problems of children are singled out by psychologists and educationists through scholastic tests, and causes of anomalies can also be cannot evaluated properly.
- Personality Test: Through personality tests, attempts can be made by psychologists to throw light on the emotional characteristics of children as well as temperamental traits. Evidence shows that there is certain personality traits permit which has a direct relationship with sensitiveness, concentration, emotional stability, assertiveness, etc., are some of these traits.
Thematic Apperception Tests (TAT), Rorschach Ink Blot Test (RIBT Word Association Test (WAT). Free Association Test and some psychoanalytical procedures are very much helpful to the psychologists here. Research analysis by WP Alexander has also revealed that teachers’ assessment of children’s traits for personality can be profitably used for diagnostic and productive purposes. (BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Slow Learner)
- Intelligence Test: Through the use of any standardized intelligence tests the intellectual level of children can be assessed. Both verbal intelligence tests and non-verbal tests can be used for this purpose. But psychologists prefer individual verbal tests to group verbal tests. An expert can get a true picture of the mental capacities of backward children by giving many intelligence tests. (BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Slow Learner)
A Singh test is not sufficient to bring out the full picture of the mental capacities of a child. Psychologists use more than one standardized test to ascertain a particular anomaly.
- Psychometric and Psychological Tests: For diagnostic purposes, psychologists use psychometric tests which are of a sensory nature. For better appraisal, analysis, and evaluation of specific skills of backward children, these tests are primarily used. By These tests, psychologists try to discover the exact nature of errors made by backward children. Again some other psychological tests may also be used to assess the span of attention auditory perception steadiness, memory and reasoning powers.
The etymology of Slow Learners Children (Causes)
The causes of slow learning are many. Some important ones are discussed below:
- Poverty: In a developing country like India, poverty is considered to be the primary cause of slow learning. Poverty affects children in two ways- (i) by them impairing children’s health, and (ii) by reducing their learning capacity. Again it brings rare opportunities to acquire general knowledge through enriched experience. In other words, a child from a sophisticated family has it variety of avenues to explore and he gets plenty of materials to meet his requirements.
He gets educational toys and books which are conducive to acquiring general knowledge to improve his educational background. On the contrary, a child from an impoverished family does not get enough opportunities to live a full life. However, poverty is not the sole cause of slow learning. We have to investigate other causes to gain first-hand knowledge about slow learners. (BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Slow Learner)
- The intelligence of Family Members: Another potent factor of learning is the level of intelligence of parents as well as family members. It indirectly affects the slow learning of children. It is true that educated and intelligent parents can provide educational experiences and materials to their children according to their own intellectual level.
But if the parents are not intelligent or sophisticated, they cannot take positive steps towards the upliftment of their children. Again, the economic condition of the family also plays a major role to permit the parents to spend a little amount of money on their children regularly. (BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Slow Learner)
If their purse permits, then they become interested to purchase for their children some materials which have educational value. A sophisticated family which is economically sound can provide better opportunities for their children. Children coming from affluent families which have high socioeconomic status are not usually slow learners. Research evidence also confirms this fact.
- Emotional Factors: Emotional factors contribute a lot to the slow learning of children. Psychologists confirmed this through their research analysis. When a child comes to school, he brings his emotional world with him. Experiments have already established the fact that tensions and conflicts exercise a negative effect on the learning of the child.
So the tensions at home and the relationships between the siblings and parents themselves have an adverse effect on the child, not to mention the frustrations, which he sustains from his family and from the external world. Research data revealed that in democratic homes, children get less frustration than the autocratic home.
So, in a way, we can conclude that children from autocratic homes are usually slow learners.
- Personal Factors: Besides all these above factors, there are some personal factors that are more or less responsible for slow learning. Personal factors include long illness or long absence from school and lack of confidence in self. It was found that children who lack self-confidence are usually slow learners.
Slow learners or backward children may be of three types:
(i) Very backward because of retarded mental development accompanied by psycho-social deficiencies. They need special educational treatment outside, the ordinary school-special school or special class.
(ii) Ability is not quite limited but has difficulty in learning than average children due to school and family or personal factors.
(iii) They can be dealt with in ordinary schools although they may derive benefits from special classes not limited in intelligence but have problems in reading and writing whereas arithmetic and other subjects are high. Their cause may range from specific perceptual difficulties to emotional maladjustments. For them, some form of remedial teaching is required.