BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Theories of Intelligence Notes
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Theories of Intelligence
What is the form of intelligence and how does it function? In this regard, different psychologists have derived different conclusions on the basis of their experiments. (BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Theories of Intelligence Notes)
These conclusions are called the theories of intelligence. The chief theories of intelligence are being presented here in brief. These theories will help in understanding the form and working of intelligence and will help to understand its method of measurement.
- Unitary or Monarchic Theory: Benet, Merman, and Stern, on the basis of their experiment, reached the conclusion that intelligence is a unifying factor, power, or energy which affects all activities of a person. According to this theory, if the intelligence of a person is sharp, he will be able to perform any task proficiently. Johanson has gone tel the extent of saying that if scientist Newton would have used his intelligence in the field of literature he would have become a great composer of literature. (BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Theories of Intelligence Notes)
However, the fact is that persons with sharp or high intelligence cannot succeed in all fields equally well, besides their intelligence, it also depends on their needs. This is the reason that theory is not accepted at present.
- Two Factor or Bi-Factor Theory: British psychologist Spearman concluded from his experiments that intelligence is the sum total of two powers or abilities. He described the first factor as general mental ability (G) and the other, as specific mental ability (S). (BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Theories of Intelligence Notes)
He clarified that man all takes, white S helps him only in those tasks for which it is meant. They further clarified that G is one and the same while S is several. He named them General Intelligenence and Specific Intelligence and so on.
The scholars accepted the argument of Spearman that G and T both function in different activities of a person. However, this does not clarify the amount of G and S in the performance of an activity, so this theory is not accepted at present.
- Three Factor Theory: Spearman himself was able to understand the shortcoming of his Two Factor Theory, so he propounded the Three-Factor Theory to do away with the shortcoming of Two Factor Theory. He added to the two factors G and S, another factor and called it Group Factor (GF). Group Factors meant that factor that exists in G and S factors equally.
It can be understood by the following sketch.
American psychologist, Thorndike criticized this theory and said that intellectual activities are administered from complex tissue organs and are administered in different patterns, so they cannot be made clear by G.S. and G.F.
- Multi-Factor or Anarchic Theory: This theory was propounded by an American psychologist. Thorndike. According to him, there is no factor as general ability (G) in intelligence. Intelligence is the sum total of several specific factors or elements, and several elements come together to perform any mental task.
He clarified that the experiences or a person in which there is a sound relation between stimulus (S) and response (R), are used by the person in solving similar types of problems in the future. He further clarified that it is because of this fact that a person who is proficient in performing a kind of task, it is not necessary that he will also be proficient in performing other kinds of tasks.
However, modern psychologists have not been able to discover these multi-factors or elements of intelligence. Some of them describe them to be 5, and others as 7 or 9, and someone goes to the extent of describing them to be 120 and says that there may still be many more. (BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Theories of Intelligence Notes)
- Group Factor Theory OR PMA Model: Prof, Thurston of Chicago University concluded on the basis of his experiments that intelligence does not indicate an ability, or two abilities, or three of them, or several of them; rather it is the sum total of several groups of collective abilities. He further clarified that there is a Primary Factor of each such group, which represents that group. He called it Primary Mental Ability (PMA). (BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Theories of Intelligence Notes)
On this basis, this theory is also called Primary Mental Ability Theory or PMA Model. Because the existence of several abilities is accepted in this theory, it is also called Multi-Mental Ability Theory. Thurston has discovered seven such Primary Factors or Primary Mental Abilities. (BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Theories of Intelligence Notes)
(1) Numerical Ability (N)
(2) Verbal ability (V)
(3) Spatial Ability (S)
(4) Word Fluency (W)
(5) Reasoning Ability (R)
(6) Perceptual Ability (P).
(7) Memory Ability (M)
In brief, it is described as follows:
Intelligence = N + V + S + W + R + M + P
According to Thurston, these seven mental abilities function in the form of intelligence. He further clarified that these abilities are independent on their own; a person develops according to the amount of these seven abilities. For example, a person with more numerical ability is able to understand and solve mathematical problems easily; and a person with more verbal ability has a wide vocabulary. (BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Theories of Intelligence Notes)
On the basis of these seven mental abilities. Thurston also prepared an intelligence test which is called the Test of Primary Mental Ability. Psychologists have not been to make a universally acceptable list of mental abilities as yet, but most scholars consider intelligence to be sum total of several mental abilities.
- Hierarchical Theory: British psychologists, Burt and Philip Vernon synthesized the two-factor, three-factor, and group factor theories of intelligence and propounded a new theory which is called Hierarchical Theory. The fundamental base of this theory is the belief that human abilities are ordered hierarchically.
In this order, there are General Factors, Major Group Factors, Minor Group Factors, and Specific Factors respectively. They accorded the highest place to G of Spearman. Oil the second level, they placed the Major Group Factors and divided them into two classes: verbal educational mal mental abilities and practical mechanical abilities.
On the third level, they placed the above Major Group Factors and divided them into Minor Group Factors: They divided educational mental abilities into verbal, numerical, and other abilities, and practical mechanical ability into mechanical, spatial manual, and other abilities. (BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Theories of Intelligence Notes)
On the fourth and last level, they placed the Specific Factors related to Major Group Factors. These human abilities can be understood by the chart presented here. (BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Theories of Intelligence Notes)
At present, most psychologists have come to accept intelligence as the sum total of different abilities, yet they do not hold a uniform view on their order. Thus, this theory is also not complete in itself.
- Three Dimensional Theory or SI Model: This theory was propounded by psychologist J.P. Guilford. Guilford presented the structure of intelligence in the form of an orderly three dimensions: contents, operations, and products. He discovered 4 contents, 5 operations, and 6 products, and said that the intelligence can be the sum totals of this 4 x 5 x 6 = 120 mental the following sketch.
According to Guilford, any intellectual incident takes place on the basis of these three dimensions. In every cell or this model, there is at least one-factor ability, but it can be more in some of them. According to him, each factor can be analyzed in relation to these three dimensions. (BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Theories of Intelligence Notes)
According to this theory, there can be more than 120 mental abilities. The first notable thing in this regard is that it is difficult to understand and differentiate these 120 mental abilities. (BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Theories of Intelligence Notes)
Secondly, it is difficult to understand the structure of intelligence by it.
- Fluid and Crystalised Theory: This theory was propounded by psychologist Cottell Cattell and has divided human intelligence into two parts:
(i) Fluid Intelligence (G,): By fluid intelligence, Cattell means the ability to perceive. According to him, this intelligence helps in the construction of concepts and in reorganizing them. It is more helpful in performing non-language tasks which are not related to prior experiences or social and educational background. (BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Theories of Intelligence Notes)
Heredity has an important role in the determination of this intelligence, and this intelligence is more in childhood and starts, to decrease after the age of 20 years. (BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Theories of Intelligence Notes)
(ii) Crystalised Intelligence (Ge): According to Cattell, this intelligence depends on cultural knowledge, education, and other skills of a person. This intelligence develops continuously and its development depends more on the environment.
However, most other psychologists are not in favor of dividing intelligence into two such parts. They argue that intelligence is one whole and its development depends more on heredity and the environment both.
- Theory of Intelligence A and B: This theory was propounded by psychologist Hebb. He divided intelligence into intelligence A and intelligence B. (BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Theories of Intelligence Notes)
(i) Intelligence A: According to Hebb, it is that intelligence is determined by heredity that is from the genes of the person, giving birth. This is inntate intellegnce. (BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Theories of Intelligence Notes)
This intelligence is that capacity that helps in making the outline of a task and executing it.
(ii) Intelligence B: According to Hebb, this is that intelligence is developed in the environment, and it is completely developed in infancy and childhood. (BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Theories of Intelligence Notes)
The psychologists are not in agreement with this theory of Hebb. Some psychologists take intelligence as innate and they consider that environment does not help much in its development. (BEd 2nd Year What do you mean by Theories of Intelligence Notes)
On the other hand, some psychologists consider intelligence to be the product of both heredity and the environment. It is another thing that most scholars take heredity as a more important factor in its development forever, it is not responsible to consider intelligence into two different forms intelligence A and Intelligence B.