Bed 2nd Year What do you understand by Environmental Conservation
Bed 2nd Year What do you understand by Environmental Conservation: In this post, we will learn about Bed 2nd Year What do you understand by Environmental Conservation. In Bed 2nd Year there is one of the most important questions comes from Environment Education. You will learn about Bed 2nd Year What do you understand by Environmental Conservation. Teaching is a social and professional activity. It is a process of development. Teaching is a system of actions that induce learning through interpersonal relationships. and all the rest you will study in this Blog
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Bed 2nd Year What do you understand by Environment
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Meaning of Environmental Conservation
According to the Dictionary of Environment (McMillan). En conservation means the planning and management of resources so their wise use and continuity of supply while maintaining and enhancing quality, value and diversity. Resources may be man-made or natural. The action of conservation includes preservation from destructive influences, natural decay or waste.
Conservation is the careful use of land, air, water minerals and other resources. It is in fact the planned use of the environment using all the planning foresight and cooperation that man can muster.
The function of conservation also rests on the perceptual levels of the individual. According to Whyte (1977), environmental perception is Human Awareness and a general understanding of one’s environment. Behaviour environment is influenced by our awareness of the need to adapt to the environment which in turn triggers the behaviour of the individual.
Conservation has been defined as “the management for the benefit of all life including mankind of the biosphere so that it may yield sustainable benefit to the present generation which maintaining its potential to meet the needs and aspiration of the future generations.”
Conservation includes land use, agriculture, energy flow, waste management, wildlife management, natural park sanctuaries, water management non-pollution renewal energy development.
Conservation means the utilization of natural resources not only by the present generation but also by the future generation. It does not include the process of exploitation. (Bed 2nd Year What do you understand by Environmental Conservation)
Conservation is also concerned with the complete elimination of some unique species for which there may be no alternative at all. One cannot imagine a situation if Penicillium had been eliminated from nature before mankind made use of it as an antibiotic, or if Cinchona become extinct before quinine was discovered as a cure for malaria. It is therefore in our own interest to conserve our plants, animals and microbial wealth. There is a global realization of the urgent need to conserve biological diversity.
Environmental conservation is all over the world problem. It becomes a gradually very serious problem for mankind and the total biosphere. The environmental day is celebrated on June 5 all over the world to draw attention to the problems- crisis of the human population, the crisis of pollution and the rise of earth’s temperature etc.
The forests control the regional climate of the world. These play a significant role in soil erosion as well as rainfall in the region. The process of deforestation is reducing biodiversity. The desert area of the world is increasing. It has disturbed the ecological balance of the environment. There is an urgent need for environmental conservation.
Characteristics of Conservation
The following are the main characteristics of conservation:
(i) Conservation is the wise use of land, air, water and other minerals.
(ii) Consciousness of the environment.
(iii) It is concerned with human awareness.
(iv) Conservation is the careful use of natural resources.
(v) Conservation rests on the perceptual levels the individuals.
Objectives of Conservation
The main objectives of conservation are as follows:
(i) To ensure that any utilization of species and ecosystem is sustainable’
(ii) To maintain essential ecological processes and life support systems.
(iii) To use wisely land, water, air forest and minerals
(iv) To preserve biological diversity;
(v) Preserve natural resources for future generations.
Categories of Conservation
There are two main categories of conservation:
(a) Ex situ conservation, and
(b) In situ conservation.
(a) Ex Situ Conservation. As we know that this is conservation outside their habitats by perpetuating sample population in genetic resource centres, zoos, botanical gardens, culture collections etc., or in the form of gene pools and gamete storage for fish; germplasm banks for seeds, pollen, semen, ova, cells etc. Plants are more readily maintained than animals. Seed banks, botanical gardens, pollen storage, tissue culture and genetic engineering have been playing important role in this type of conservation. Under the Ministries of Environment and Forests, Agriculture, and Science and Technology a large number of institutions are involved in the conservation and utilization of bloodthirsty in India. Between them, they are dealing in situ conservation including sphere reserves, and national parks. Wildlife sanctuaries and ex situ conservation such as field gene banks, seed and other banks, and utilization involving gene and drug prospecting respectively. (Bed 2nd Year What do you understand by Environmental Conservation)
(b) In Situ Conservation. As we know that this is the conservation of genetic resources through their maintenance within natural or even human-made ecosystems in which they occur. This is an ideal system for genetic resources, and conservation. This type includes a system of protected areas of different categories, managed with different objectives to bring benefit to society. Natural parks, Sanctuaries, Nature Reserves, Natural Monuments, Cultural Landscapes, Biosphere Reserves etc., belong to this type of conservation. In situ conservation, therefore is not practicable for domesticates.
Types of Conservation Methods
Natural resources are essential for ecological balance and maintaining the biodiversity of an area. The main types of conservation are as follows:
- Social Conservation Methods
(a) Biological methods
(b) Mechanical method, and
(c) Other methods.
- Forest and Wildlife Conservation Methods
(a) Conservation of reserve forest,
(b) Chipko moment,
(c) Appiko chaluvali,
(d) Environment day,
(e) Social Forestry, and
(f) Forest Conservation Act 1980
- Water Conservation and Land Use Planning Methods
(a) Watershed management
(b) River valley Projects
(c) Water land management, and
(d) Multipurpose projects.
The details of these types of conservation plans, projects and laws have been discussed in the other chapters.
Need of Conservation
An expanding human population resulted in expanding needs of man, man started utilizing natural resources at a much large scale with scientific progress and technological development. Continuous increase in population caused an increasing demand for resources. Which created a situation where the non-renewable resources may come to an end after some time? We would be using all those resources which are infecting the property of future generations There must be some sort of balance between the population growth and the utilization of natural resources.
The non-availability of resources leads to their prices-rise which has an adverse effect on the economics of countries. During the 1980s the world experienced a state of imbalance between the growth rates of population and economic development. After 1973 the prices of petroleum showed an abrupt hike. The growth rates of food production and economic development suffered setbacks.
In some areas, there is not enough water for agriculture and industry. In other areas, there are problems with water logging due to over-irrigation. In some countries much underground water is being utilized for food grain production, resulting in a lowering of the water table in northern China. (Bed 2nd Year What do you understand by Environmental Conservation)
There is an urgent need to check the degradation of the environment and maintaining or restoring the balance of nature is the single-most-important challenge to mankind. Although efforts have been made to appraise the problem from a broad perspective. The problem indeed is very serious. There are several types of crises before the man-energy crisis, population crisis, environmental crisis and essentially crisis of perception. (Bed 2nd Year What do you understand by Environmental Conservation)
Conservation has focused to meet the need and aspirations of future generations and sustain the benefits of the present generation by using career natural resources-land water, air and other minerals and setting individuals’ perceptions.
There is an urgent need to maintain the quality of the environment by checking its degradation and maintaining ecological balance. The quality of the environment is being degraded by different types of crises which are as follows:
(i) Environmental/Ecological Crisis (Land, air, water, etc.),
(ii) Population Crisis
(iii) Energy Crisis, and
(iv) Perception Crisis.
The environmental crisis has been discussed in the following paragraphs:
- Land Dereliction. On crisis that one has created for himself through action is that caused by land dereliction. Which has been taking place increasingly for man needs land for his personal use. He does not mean more like many other mammals: he likes to live in cottages, bungalows, flats and houses and in order to build them, he has to destroy forests, dig the earth, make bricks, manufacture steel and produce concrete and cement. He has been doing this more and more as the human population has been increasing. He has also been setting up industries to produce an ever-increasing number of consumer goods which promises to make his life and living comfortable and has in the process been falling trees, destroying forests and despoiling pastures. In consequence, some serious problems which could have otherwise been avoided have baffled him.
- Deforestation. The reckless destruction of forests and despoliation of pastures has disturbed some food chains found in nature and have caused the extinction of some species of animals, creating thereby an ecological problem. A food chain begins with autotrophy or producers i.e. plants and goes up to carnivores. For instance, deer eats grass and lion eats deer. Their food chain would, therefore is being with grass and go up to a lion. It can be represented as a grass-deer-lion. Now since food contains energy, a food chain is a flow of energy. The energy flows from plants to herbivores. It gives us an idea of the dependence of one form of life on another and of man on nature and should make him realize that he should not destroy food chains recklessly because doing that would forebode his doom. (Bed 2nd Year What do you understand by Environmental Conservation)
- Industrialization. The destruction of forests had been tremendous since the industrial revolution. Trees have fallen and forests cleared up to set up industries, established villages and build towns and cities. The aftermath has been soil erosion and land dereliction, for, in the absence of trees, rainwater washes away the humus and the top soil making land unfit for cultivation. Besides that, the catchment area divested of trees cannot hold rainwater which drains out rapidly and therefore, does not accumulate and percolate to the lakes and rivers and thus we lose a large quality of water which could have otherwise been available for being used throughout the rest of the year.
- Water Pollution. Not only by cutting forests but also by though less disposal of industrial wastes and has created problems of water pollution for himself. The discharge of individual wastes contaminated water and mixes it with poisonous chemicals which kill aquatic plants and animals such as fishes and crabs and disturb the ecosystem. Similarly, the disposal of the sewage of big cities into the rivers promotes the growth of phytoplanktons which reduce the level of oxygen in the water. This reduction in the oxygen kills many animals in the sea, chief among them being fishes, a prominent source of man’s proteinous food. Thus industrial waste and sewage are dangerous sources of water pollution. A third source of water pollution is our bathing and washing in the rivers, lakes and ponds, for all the germs in the human body such as those of typhoid, cholera and hepatitis are washed into the water. (Bed 2nd Year What do you understand by Environmental Conservation)
- Air Pollution. Perhaps more dangerous than water pollution is air pollution, for the same air sweeps across all the continents and all of us breathe the same air throughout the world.
The primary source of air pollution is smoke emitted by different objects, right from the hearth in a hut to the exhaust of jet aeroplanes. We realize this every day, no matter whether we may be in a village or in cities. When in the village, we find at the dusk time that smoke emitted by burning cow dung and chips of wood hangs so thickly in the air that it enters our eyes and noses. In cities too, coal burnt in power stations at homes and in factories centres the atmosphere like an external stream like a cloud that bursts out of the mouth of a chimney to hang around for some time and then gets lost within the folds of the surrounding air, which in the process gets polluted. Similarly, smoke exhausted by automobiles, buses aeroplanes, etc., pollutes the air by increasing the proportion of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and soot. (Bed 2nd Year What do you understand by Environmental Conservation)
- Other types of Pollution. In addition to the despoliation of land and pollution of water and air, noise pollution is also increasing today. An ordinary aeroplane strikes a deafening blow on our ears. The rumble of trains and the noise of the four-wheelers, two-wheelers playing and the time on the roads of metropolises seem to be a great nuisance.