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Bed 2nd Year What do you understand by Integrated Land Use Planning

Bed 2nd Year What do you understand by Integrated Land Use Planning

Bed 2nd Year What do you understand by Integrated Land Use Planning

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Bed 2nd Year What do you understand by Integrated Land Use Planning
Bed 2nd Year What do you understand by Integrated Land Use Planning

Integrated Land Use Planning

The land is an important component of the life support system. Unfortunately, Land has been overused and even abused over the centuries. (Bed 2nd Year What do you understand by Integrated Land Use Planning)

Mrs. Indira Gandhi 1972 said “We can no longer afford (to neglect our most important) non-Natural resources. This is not simply an environmental problem, but one which their basic to the future country.”

In a predominantly agricultural country like ours, land comes first. Due to exploding population soil is used increasingly which Original Posses a threat to its productivity. Careless use damages soil and results in the station. reduction in quality and quality of woodland, grassland, cropland, and soil erosion degradation of watersheds and catchments; deforestation and can lebertification. Due to demographic pressures land is under stress due to sprawl in agriculture, industry, and urbanization. Cropland is losing fast fertile topsoil. (Bed 2nd Year What do you understand by Integrated Land Use Planning)

Our land use statistics are confusing. For proper planning, we need authentic figures agreed upon by the concerned department (agriculture, forestry, revenue, records, etc.) using modern methods such as remote sensing. For instance, good agricultural land in the trans-Yamuna area, from Ghaziabad onwards is lost to agriculture forever. This is not in the national interest. The best land use planning has been done by Japan, being hard pressed for land. France has the most effective Summe of land preservation.

India has one of the lowest man:

(i) land ratio-hectares per capita. A strategy must be developed to cure past damage and save the country from future damage to the land. This can be achieved to save the country from future damage to land use data through remote sensing etc. 

(ii) a time-bound nationwide survey programme of micro-level land use planning giving short and long-term scenarios,

(iii) to prepare land use classes,

(iv) to review all existing legislation and update then and

(v) management plans for land amelioration are to be prepared. This would lead to a dynamic land-use policy. The Government has constituted an apex body headed by the Prime Minister, called the National Land Use and Wastelands Development Council (NLU WDC). At the second level, there are two boards; the National Land Use and Conservation Board (NLUCB)(Ministry of Agriculture) and the National Wastelands Development Board (NWDB) (Ministry of Rural Development), set up in 1985.

(1) Water Resources

Water is an integral part of the land/soil productivity base. Its misuse can cause soil degradation and soil erosion. Water management is thus necessary for yields and other activities. Primary channel flow originates in the upper catchment and these watersheds are very important for the future. Therefore, health watersheds are most important.

(2) Watershed Management

Availability of water in a given soil is a critical factor and is related to erosion, siltation, loss of cover, and productivity. In Indian floods bring much havoc causing loss of life and property each year. Due to floods, the plains have become silted with mud and sand, thus affecting the cultivable land areas. The extinction of civilization in some coastal areas is mainly due to such natural calamities as floods.

The National Commission on floods has calculated that the land area prone to floods has doubled from 20 million hectares in 1971 to 40 million hectares in 1980. Flood damage costs the country 21 crores in 1951 which increased to 1130 crore in 1977, it was 128 crore per year during the decade 1960-70 increasing to 739 crores per year during 1970-80.

The worst suffering States are Assam, Bihar, Odisha, Uttar Pradesh, and West Bengal. These aspects are to be given serious thought to save further destruction of mankind. Through ( modern technology and scientific knowledge, there is a need for a proper understanding of the ecosystem so that changes could be forecast well in time.

Thus, the management of rainfall and resultant runoff is very important. Such management can be best based on a natural unit called a watershed. A watershed is an area bounded by a divided line of water flow. Thus, it may be a drainage basin or stream. The Himalayas are one of the most critical watersheds in the world. Our water regimes in the mountain ranges are threatened to result in the depletion of water resources. The damage to reservoirs and irrigation systems and misuse of Himalayan slopes are mounting as are the costs for control measures during the “flood season” every year.

The vast hydroelectric power potential can be harnessed from Himalayan watersheds only when proper control measures are taken. These include soil and land use surveys, soil conservation in catchments of River Valley Projects and flood-prone rivers, afforestation/social forestry programmes, Drought prone area Development Programme, and Desert Development and Control of Shifting Cultivation. (Bed 2nd Year What do you understand by Integrated Land Use Planning)

(3) River Valley Projects

An environmental side-effect of the river valley and hydel power projects. could be classified into three categories, viz. (i) impacts within and around the area covered by the dam and reservoir, (ii) downstream effects caused by an alteration in hydraulic and regional effects in terms of overall aspects including resources ply use and socio-economic aspects.

The impact caused by the construction of dams and reservoirs includes changes in the micro-climate, loss of vegetable cover, soil erosion, variation in the water table, and enhanced seismic activities due to the pressure of water. The nature and magnitude of the impacts vary with the project locations and the condition. therein. For instance, in hilly tracts, blasting operations for road construction loans cause considerable damage to the environment through loosening of hillsides and resultant landslides, sedimentation of reservoirs, drying up of spring, and flash floods. The creation of new settlements for the workmen and au rehabilitation of project oustees in the watershed areas may aggravate the seriousness of advance impacts.

From the above, it becomes clear that necessary mitigative and environmental safeguards are to be guaranteed before the clearance of a project. The safeguards for the following are to be guaranteed: (i) submergence of valuable agricultural and forest areas, (ii) siltation of reservoirs due to degraded catchment conditions, (ii) satisfactory rehabilitation of oustees, (iv) loss of flora and fauna, (v) reservoir induced seismicity and (vi) water-borne and soil-borne diseases. A number of big, medium, and minor dams have been envisaged under different river valley projects. These dams have been undertaken for irrigation, El power generation, and water supply. These dams hailed as the Temples of Modern India by the country’s first Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru have increased agricultural production, power generation, and reduced dependence on imports.

But according to some experts the social environment and even economic cost of these dams. However, far outweighs their benefits. The most important social consequence of big dams has been the displacement of millions of tribals from their homeland and their eventual influx into urban areas, almost as refugees. Scientists, environmentalists, journalists, social activists, lawyers, and bureaucrats have now taken up the cry against big dams. (Bed 2nd Year What do you understand by Integrated Land Use Planning)

Mounting opposition from scientists and environmentalists has forced the Government to review a number of proposed dams in light of their impact on local tribals, flora, and fauna. A glaring example that had an effect on Government Policy and Karo Project in Bihar. This was also abandoned due to the position form local people as it would have displaced several thousands of Santhal tribals in the area. (Bed 2nd Year What do you understand by Integrated Land Use Planning)

The four major projects which generated much controversy are (i) Sardar Sarover Project, Gujarat, (ii) Narmada Sagar Project, Madhya Pradesh, (iii) Bodhghat Project, Madhya Pradesh, and (iv) Tehri Dam Project in Uttarakhand. Though these have been given environmental clearance, and struggle is still on to force the Government to drop these projects. In the dailies, headlines such as “Losses exceed Tehri dam benefits”, “Government forced to review dam projects”, “Big dams spell doom”, “How green was my valley”, “The displacement factors”, etc. have been much common.

Sardar Sarovar Project in Bharuch (Gujarat) is one of the costliest projects affecting villages in three States Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, and Gujarat. About 245 villages will be submerged, of which about 193 are in Madhya Pradesh alone. Over 75,000 (nearly 50,000 in M.P. alone) people will be evicted. Additional displacement is likely to be caused during social and environmental rehabilitation work undertaken to repair the dislocation and damages caused by the project. Thus, compensatory afforestation and setting of wildlife sanctuary will displace or affect other villagers in the areas. It has been officially admitted that nearly 43,000 hectares of land will be needed for the rehabilitation of SS oustees.

Narmada Valley Project (NVP) in Madhya Pradesh the world’s largest river valley project has attracted the greatest attention. The 30 big dams and over, 3000 medium and minor dams are envisaged at a cost of 25,000 crores. It would displace over one million people, mostly tribals, and submerge 56,000 hectares of fertile agricultural land. A total forest area of nearly 60,000 hectares will be destroyed. About 25 species of birds will be deprived of their habitats.

Bodhghat Project on the Indaravati river in Madhya Pradesh is in the heavily forested Bastar district. The project will destroy teak and sal forests, and spell doom for the last surviving wild buffaloes. The criticism of the project forced the Government and the World Bank to reconsider it. (Bed 2nd Year What do you understand by Integrated Land Use Planning)

Teri Dam on the Bhagirathi river in Uttrakhand at the foothills of the Himalayas is Soviet-financed and challenged in the Supreme Court. This dam will displace over 85,000 people, and will totally immerse the Tehri town and completely or partly submerge nearly 100 villages. The site is prone to intense seismic activity. The 3,200 million tons of water that the Dam would impound could cause a major earth tremor. In the event of a disaster, the entire religious townships of Deoprayag, Haridwar, and Rishikesh would be devastated. Thousands of hectares of rich, agricultural land will be drowned. The project costs about 3,000 crores, a major drawback is a site, is situated only 100 km from the Chinese border. (Bed 2nd Year What do you understand by Integrated Land Use Planning)

(4) Irrigation (Water-logging and Salinity)

Rainwater is conserved by wells, reservoirs, bunding of the stream, and canal systems. Since independence, there has been increasing in the net irrigated area of the country. Since the start of the Five Year Plans the area increased to 38 million hectares of this 60% is by wells and tube wells. Canal irrigation increased by 6.7 million hectares from 1950-51 to 1978-79.

Though, there has been phenomenal growth in irrigation potential it has not given returns in terms of yield or money commensurate with the investments. Moreover, large areas became submerged under reservoirs and have been destroyed by the construction of roads and colonies. Added to these are the problems of salinity and water-logging. The net result is a loss of land productivity. Canal irrigation in arid or low rainfall areas of Punjab, Haryana. Rajasthan, Gujarat d Karnataka increased crop production, but only when water-logging is controlled by effective drainage. In Punjab, the seepage from unlined canals raised the water label 7-10 meters above the previous levels. In the medium rainfall areas of Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, and Uttar Pradesh except for rice and post-rain season crops, the effect on crop production is marginal. Canal irrigation is harmful to soils that degrade due to water logging and salinity. In India, more than 20% of irrigated land is damaged due to water logging salinity. It is estimated that fertility between 30 to 80% of the world’s irrigated land has been affected due to salinization. In high rainfall areas of Assam, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Odisha, West Bengal, and Kerala, canal water is difficult to manage during the rainy season. Water logging and increased salinity are mostly the outcome of poor drainage in areas with massive irrigation projects.

Based on the above, the following conclusions could be drawn, (i) benefits from canal irrigation can be sustained in low rainfall areas for the first 15-20 years and thereafter occur water-longing and salinity, (ii) canal distributaries and field channels are to be lined, (ii) water needs proper management at the farm level for regular and timely supplies, (iv) proper land leveling and shaping to increase water use efficiency, (v) proper land leveling and shaping to increase water use efficiency and (vi) a critical review of the extent and nature of irrigation in high rainfall areas. (Bed 2nd Year What do you understand by Integrated Land Use Planning)

(5) Wastelands Development

Degraded, land and other wastelands should be reclaimed and put to some productivity use. Wastelands are those which for one reason or the other do not fulfill their life-sustaining potential. Increasing misuse of land resources through short-sighted development policies has resulted in wastelands. About half of the land area of the country is lying as a wasteland of varying intensity of degradation.

  1. Degraded Land. More land is needed for agriculture and forestry due to the increasing population, Moreover, our good land is shrinking both in quantity and quality. The former is due to unexpected demands and the latter due to erosion, desertification, water-logging, salinity, alkali soils, and toxic effects of agrochemicals and industrial effluents.

To only way to raise land, and resources are by reclamation and development of degraded land (ravines, gullies, water-logged, alkaline, saline and river rain lands, lateritic soil, infested with unwanted shrubs and bushes, stony and gravelly land, etc.). Another type of land is the culturable Wasteland, as follows.

  1. Mined Areas. Most mining work has been unscientific with no environmental protection. There have developed large tracts that lost productivity. There have been water and air pollution, despoliation of land and deforestation, noise and ground vibration problems, etc. Mined areas are to be reclaimed for agriculture, forestry, fisheries, and recreating. There exist standard methods of reclamation. During the last 20-30 years a number of mining operations have been started in the country. This affected forest and cultivated land areas. Such operations have been taken mainly in Uttar Pradesh Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, and Andhra Pradesh. The use of land on large scale for townships, communication, excavation, and transport affected the socio-economy and ecology of this area. Ecological problems developed in coal mine areas in Gorbi (Uttar Pradesh) and Jayant (Madhya Pradesh). In Ranchi, several 100 sq. km. of land has been erased due to the construction of high power transmission lines, roads, and rail tracks. The establishment of other factories such as cement and super thermal power stations around coal mines have resulted in environmental degradation. (Bed 2nd Year What do you understand by Integrated Land Use Planning)

There are two successful cases of reclamation of mined areas in India. These are, Neyveli Lignite Corporation Ltd. In Tamil Nadu and Stone Quarries of Sayaji Iron Works in Gujarat. There is a need to have legal protection and to revise the Mines and Minerals (Regulations and Development) Act, 1957 (MHRD Act) to bring in the environmental concerns.

 

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