Bed 2nd Year What do you understand by phase of teaching? Explain in detail.
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Phases of Teaching
The activities in teaching carry special importance. Its main cause is that through these activities, the pupils get much assistance in learning. In other words, learning expertness is acquired in a natural way through these activities. It should be remembered that these activities are different in the different phases of teaching. The teaching phases are as follows:
- Pre-active Phase of Teaching.
- Inter-active Phase of Teaching
- Post-active Phase of Teaching
1. Pre-active Phase of Teaching
In the pre-active phase of teaching, the planning of teaching is carried over. This phase includes all those activities which a teacher performs before classroom teaching or before entering the classroom. Hence, the following activities are included in the pre-active phase of teaching :
- Fixation of Goals.
- Decision-making about the subject matter.
- Arranging/Sequencing the elements of content for presentation.
- A decision about the Strategies of Teaching.
- Distribution of Teaching Strategies.
The above activities can be explained in short as follows:
1. Fixation of Goals: First of all, the teacher determines the teaching objectives which are then defined in the form of behavioral changes. In their words, he ascertains the teaching objectives and the changes he requires in the pupils by achieving those objectives. These objectives are of two types-In the form of entering behaviors of the pupils and the form of terminal behaviors of the pupils. It is remarkable that these objectives are determined according to the psychology of the pupils and the needs of the school and society.
2. Decision Making about the Subject Content: After fixing the teaching objectives, the teacher makes decisions about the content which is to be presented before the pupils, and as a result, he wants to bring changes in their behaviors. This decision is taken by the teacher while focusing on the following points:
- What is the need for the curriculum proposed by the teacher for the pupils?
- What is the terminal behavior of the pupils?
- Why do the pupils need it to learn?
- What level of motivation can be effective for the pupils?
- By which methods the teachers should evaluate the knowledge related to the subject matter?
3. Arranging/sequencing the Elements of Content for Presentation: After making decisions regarding the contents to be presented to the pupils, the teacher arranges the elements of content in a logical and psychological sequence so that the arrangement of content elements may assist in the transfer of learning.
4. Decision Making about Strategies of Teaching: After sequencing the contents, the teacher makes decisions regarding the proper methods and strategies keeping in view the contents and the level of the pupils with the help of which the contents can be marked on the brain of the pupils very easily. Hence, during the teacher training, the emphasis should be on the development of the skill, so that, after training, the teaching objectives can be achieved after making decisions about appropriate methods and strategies.
5. Distribution of Teaching Strategies: It should be remembered that the decision-making regarding the teaching methods and strategies for presenting the sequenced contents to the students is not sufficient. But the teacher is also to decide how and when he will make use of which method and strategy during the classroom teaching. In other words, what type of question he will ask the pupils? When and where will he use the chart or map? When will he deliver the lecture? When and how will he use the blackboard? And, when will he ask the evaluative questions? etc. All the above activities should be determined by the teacher at the proactive stage.
2. Interactive Phase of Teaching
In the inter-active phase of teaching, all those activities are included which a teacher carries over right from entering the classroom to the presentation of the contents. In P.W. Jackson’s words, “The teacher provides pupils verbal stimulation of various kinds, makes explanations asks questions listens to students” responses and provides guidance.
The following activities are included in the inter-active phase of teaching:
- Sizing up of the class.
- Diagnose is of the learners.
- Action and Reaction or Achievement
The action and reaction activities include the following:
- Selection of the stimuli.
- Presentation of the stimuli
- Feedback and reinforcement
- Deployment of strategies
1. Sizing up of the class: As the teacher enters the classroom, first of all, he perceives the size of the class. He throws his eyes on all the pupils of the class in a few moments. He comes to know the pupils who can help him in his teaching and the pupils who can create a problem for him as a result of this perception. He can recognize those pupils who are to discourage him and those who are to encourage him by their face-reading. In this way, the teacher can feel the class size in a few moments. In the very same way, the pupils can feel the personality of the teacher in a few seconds. Hence, at this stage, the teacher should look like a teacher. In other words, he should possess all those characteristics which are supposed to be present in a good teacher. We are throwing light on the qualities of a good teacher in the fourth unit of this book. Hence, it can be summed up that a teacher should be efficient and effective.
2. Diagnosis of Learners: After having a feeling of class size, the teacher makes efforts to know how much the new-comer or pupils have previous knowledge. He tries to know this thing in the following three areas:
- Abilities of learners.
- Interests and attitudes of learners.
- Academic background of learners.
The teacher starts teaching activities after diagnosing by questioning in the following sequence:
3. Action and Reaction or Achievement: Two types of activities an involved in the teaching:
(a) Initiation, and (b) Response. Both these activities occur between the teacher and the pupils. Both these activities are known as verbal interaction. In other words, when a teacher performs some activities, the pupils react to him or when pupils perform some activities, the teacher reacts to those activities and thus the interaction in the teaching goes on. We can present the inter-action of the teaching by the following diagram.
The teacher performs t.he following activities in order to analyze the nature of verbal and non-verbal interaction of teaching activities.
- Selection of stimuli.
- Presentation of stimuli
- Feedback and Reinforcement
- Deployment of Strategies
1. Selection of Stimuli: The motive or new knowledge is a process of teaching. It can be verbal or non-verbal. The teacher should be aware of the motive which would prove effective and which would not be so for a particular teaching situation. The teacher should select the appropriate stimulus as soon as the situation arises, and an effort should be made to control the underfed activities to create the situation and for desired activities.
2. Presentation of Stimuli: After selecting the stimuli, the teacher should present them before the pupils. The teacher should present that form of stimulus which can motivate the pupils for learning. During such presentation of stimuli, the teacher should keep in mind the form context, and order of the stimuli.
3. Feedback and Reinforcement: Feedback or reinforcement is that condition that increases the possibility of accepting a particular response in the future. In other words, those conditions which increase the possibility of occurrence of a particular response are termed feedback or reinforcement. The reconditions may be of two types which are as follows:
- Positive Reinforcement
- Negative Reinforcement
1. Positive Reinforcement: These are the conditions that increase the possibility of recurrence of desired behavior or response.
2. Negative Reinforcement: These are the conditions in which the possibility of recurrence of the undesired behavior or response is decreased, such as punishment or reprimanding, etc.
Reinforcement is used for three purposes. These are (i) For strengthening the response, (ii) For changing the response, and (iii) For modifying or correcting the response.
4. Deployment of Strategies: The teaching activities are directly related to the learning conditions. Therefore, at the time of interaction, the teacher produces such activities and conditions by the reinforcement strategies which affect the activities of the pupils. In the words, the deployment of the teaching strategies turns the pupil-teacher interaction impressive. From the very moment, the teacher starts the teaching ask and till the moment that task goes on, the verbal and non-verbal behaviors of the pupils are controlled by the reinforced strategies and cooperate in presenting the content in an impressive way. In the deployment of the teaching strategies, three areas should be considered. This age-(i) Presentation of subject matter, (ii) Levels of learning, and (iii) Level or context of learning their background, needs, motivations, attitudes, cooperation, and opposition.
We should not forget the fact that in the interactive stage, these activities are carried on not only by the teacher but also carried on by the pupils. The pupil also feels about the teacher and diagnoses his personality as a teacher. In order to be impressed themselves and to impress the teaching, they deploy various strategies by selecting the different stimuli.
Operations at the Interactive Phase
we can present the activity of the interaction through the following chart.
3. Post-active Phase of Teaching
In this phase, as the teaching task sums up, the teacher asks questions from the pupils, verbally or in writing, to measure the behaviors of the pupils so that their achievements may be evaluated correctly. Therefore, the evaluation aspect includes all those activities which can evaluate the achievement of the pupils and attainment of the objectives. The following activities are considered in a post-active phase of teaching.
- Defining the exact dimensions of the changes caused by teaching.
- Select appropriate testing devices and techniques.
- Changing the strategies in terms of evidence gathered.
1. Defining the exact dimensions of the changes caused by teaching: At the end of the teaching, the teacher defines the exact dimensions of the changes in the behaviors as a result of teaching which is termed criterion behavior. For this purpose, the teacher compares the actual behavioral changes in the pupils with their expected behavioral changes as he observes the desired behavioral changes in the maximum number of pupils and concludes that his teaching strategies and tactics worked effectively with the help of which teaching objectives have been achieved.
2. Selecting appropriate testing devices and techniques: The teacher selects those testing devices and techniques to compare the actual behavioral changes with the desired behavioral changes which are reliable and valid and which can evaluate the cognitive and non-cognitive aspects of the pupils. Therefore, criteria tests are more preferred than performance tests.
3. Changing the strategies in terms of evidence gathered: While by using the reliable and valid testing devices, the teacher gets the knowledge regarding the performance of pupils and attainment of objectives, on one hand, he also gets clarity regarding his instruction, teaching strategies and tactics on the other hand. He also comes to know about the required modifications in the teaching strategies and situations along with the drawbacks of his teaching in order to achieve the teaching objectives. In this way, through evaluation, the teaching activities are diagnosed and these can be made effective by necessary modifications and changes in them.
It is evident from the above description that to achieve the teaching objectives, the three aspects of teaching activities should be arranged in such a way that when changes occur in the thinking and working systems of the pupils, creative thinking should also be developed in them so that by recognizing reality, they may become efficient in coordinating their external, experiences with their inner organization.