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Bed 2nd Year What do you understand by principles of teaching?

Bed 2nd Year What do you understand by principles of teaching

Bed 2nd Year What do you understand by the Principles of Teaching 

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Bed 2nd Year What do you understand by principles of teaching
Bed 2nd Year What do you understand by principles of teaching

Principles of Teaching

For successful teaching, it is essential to know how the pupil learns and by which methods he learns. Since the teaching methods or strategies are based on certain principles, therefore it is essential for a teacher to follow these general or basic principles while teaching.
The principles are necessary to control the behavior. In order to control the behavior of the teacher, the following two types of teaching principles are emphasized:

  1. General Principles of Teaching
  2. Psychological Principles of Teaching.

General Principles of Teaching

1. Principle of Motivation: Motivation is that method that creates pupils’ interest 10 the content. The meaning of the principle of motivation from this viewpoint is to create interest in the pupils for acquiring knowledge. It is a psychological fact that when a teacher motivates the pupils to acquire knowledge, the process of teaching and learning goes on smoothly. In the absence of proper motivation, the pupil takes no interest in memorizing the contents. This fails the whole teaching.

Hence, every teacher should follow the principle of motivation. Now the question arises of how the pupils are prepared to gain knowledge. For this, the teacher should use the pupils’ innate tendencies carefully. It is an experience that the pupil is very much curious to know about the new things regarding the environment; therefore, the teacher should create such a situation in which curiosity is aroused in the pupils regarding the acquisition of the latest knowledge concerning the novel things and contents about the environment. (Bed 2nd Year What do you understand by principles of teaching)

For example, while teaching history, curiosity can be aroused in the pupils regarding the knowledge of historical events, cornering Taj Mahal by showing its model or a picture of Taj Mahal by showing the art galleries and factories, curiosity can be aroused for art and science. Similarly, the pupils can be motivated for learning the poem by heart with the technique called ‘Antichrist while arousing curiosity and feeling of self-esteem. (Bed 2nd Year What do you understand by principles of teaching)

2. Principle of Activity or Learning by Doing: The principle of learning by doing means the teacher should produce activity in each type of lesson. This activity is of two types–(1) Physical, and (2) Mental. Physical activity means to produce activity in the body organs of the pupils, and mental activity means to activate the sense organs of the pupils. Psychologically, each pupil is – temperamentally active. Therefore, activity is in accordance with his nature According to M/c Dougall, every child has the inborn instinct of construction. As a result of this instinct, the child remains busy all the time of this instinct, the child remains busy all time in doing some or other activity. The more the activity of the pupil, the more would be the teaching-learning process. Therefore, for successful teaching, the teacher should make use of the pupil’s instinct of construction and senses to the maximum.

In other words, at the time of teaching the maximum use of the basic instruction will make the teaching effective to the maximum. Both, physical activity and mental activity depend upon each other Its evidence is that the pupil becomes alive just after talking birth and as he grows, his area of mental activities becomes broader. As the pupil’s mind and body work together, he shows more interest in learning something new. The eminent educationist Froebel has indoctrinated this principle of learning-by-doing considering this very fact, and he also indoctrinated his kindergarten system based on this principle. Most people often derive the wrong meaning of the principle of learning by doing, but it also means that the teacher should also make the pupil active in learning new things.

For example, while teaching history, the pupils can learn the historical facts and incidents very conveniently if these are shown in the form of plays as compared to learning from books, Similarly, an interest can be created in the pupils regarding geography if geography is taught by using the models, charts, and diagrams or by getting the settings prepared by the pupil themselves. Good feelings arsenide pupils by keeping themselves active. Their efficiency increases.

For this, these are some modern methods, such as-Montessori Method, Kindergarten Method, Heuristic Method, Dalton Method, Project Method, Basic Method, etc. These are based on this principle. It becomes very clear from the above description that the principle of activity is very useful. Therefore, this principle should be used in each class and in all the school activities, such as school council, declamations contests, various societies, meetings, conferences, clubs, games, etc. This will develop appreciable habits in the pupils and they will get proper and sufficient training in social service.

3. Principle of Interest: The principle of interest means to create interest of the pupils in the subject matter in order to make the teaching useful and effective. When the interest of the pupil is created in the subject matter, he acquires knowledge very conveniently. In other words, he faces no difficulty, while studying. Now the question arises that how the interest of the pupil can be created in the lesson. There are various methods for this, for example-

(1) Curiosity of the pupil should be aroused and the objective of the lesson should be made clear. The clarity of the objective to both the pupil and the teacher definitely creates the interest of the pupil in the lesson

(2) Establish a relationship of contents with the pupil’s activities and objectives

(3) The principle of learning by doing should be followed

(4) The teaching should be linked with the active life of the pupil. For example, if a pupil has no interest in learning a poem, he should be provided with an opportunity of participating in “Antakshri”, When the same pupil observed his team defeating, he will develop his interest automatically in the learning of a poem.  (Bed 2nd Year What do you understand by principles of teaching)

4. Principle of Linking with Life: From a psychological point of view, the pupil of each level has his own world. In other words, as the pupil grows, he begins to imagine his world in his own way. In this way, the pupil shows his interest in those subjects or activities which are linked to his personal world. Keeping in view this thing, the activity, and the subject have been linked with the learner’s life in this modern age. The principle of linking with life means relating the subject matter with the life of the pupils. It is correct too. We observe daily that the pupils show interest in learning those things only which are expected to be used in their future life.

In other words, the pupils learn rapidly and conveniently those things which get related to their life. According to Ryburn, “Life is a continuous experience. Everything we do is linked up with what has gone before and with what comes afterward.” Out of our daily experiences, only those get stabilized with our previous experiences. Therefore, it is necessary to relate the new experiences with our previous experiences. After a relationship between new and old experiences, the new experiences or knowledge become a part of the pupil’s life. In this light, the principle of linking with life has been given maximum importance in the teaching system.

5. Principle of Definite Aim: The meaning of this principle is that every lesson must have some definite aim or objective. In the absence of an objective, the teacher is like that boatman who has no knowledge of his aim and the pupil is like that oarless boat that is sailing in the sea waves blindly. From this point of view, there must be some definite, clear, and completely defined objectives in order to make the lesson interesting and impressive. It must be remembered that the objectives and the teaching methods are closely related. In other words, every teaching method is based on some objective. The teaching method is used according to the objective.

For example, if our objective is the appreciation of the poem then its method would be entirely different from that method which has an objective of teaching a poem to the pupils. Hence, each method must have some objective. Not only this, the pupils and the teachers must have full knowledge about that. This provides success to the teacher in his teaching task and the interest of the pupils created in the lesson. (Bed 2nd Year What do you understand by principles of teaching)

6. Principle of Recognizing individual Differences: This principle means the individual differences of the pupils should be taken into consideration. Psychological research has proved that pupils are not alike in intelligence, natural ability, interest, potentialities, and needs. That’s why each pupil is not at the same level. In order to develop all the pupils and for equal opportunities, the teacher should impart proper guidance to the talented pupils, sympathy should be shared with the abnormal pupils, and in order to bring the mentally retarded and backward pupils to the normal level, affection behavior should be exhibited. In short, the teacher should maximize the development of all the pupils on the basis of individual differences.

7. Principle of Selection: The principle of selection is an important principle. Before throwing light, it is necessary to explain that there is a close relationship between the contents and the objectives of education. In other words, the contents are selected according to the objectives. Now, it is most urgent to know that since the human being appeared on this land, he has collected huge and complex knowledge. If a teacher wishes to impart the entire knowledge to the pupils without considering any definite objective of education, it would be a serious mistake. Its reason is that some things are essential and some are non-essential. The non-essential things confuse the pupils. (Bed 2nd Year What do you understand by principles of teaching)

Hence, according to this principle, the teacher should select only those facts which the pupils can understand in order to achieve some definite objective. In other words, the teacher is to select what and how much is to be taught to the class. In short, the teacher should select the content according to the definite, clear, and predefined objective. This benefits both the teacher and the pupils. The teacher develops the lesson successfully and all the pupils acquire knowledge very conveniently.

8. Principle of Planning: To make teaching successful, this principle of planning is essential to be followed. The meaning of this principle is that the teacher should ascertain the teaching sequence and after proper planning, the lesson plan should be prepared. This enables him to solve every problem concerning teaching very conveniently. It means to say that a teacher should decide how much he can seek the operation of the pupils in order to solve a problem with the help of which method and at what stage before preparing a lesson plan. It can also occur that a problem arises at the time of teaching which had never been imagined. In such a situation, a teacher should solve the problem immediately in accordance with his ability. He can deviate from the lesson plan for this. Its reason is that the lesson plan is a helper of the teacher and not his master.

9. Principle of Division: The meaning of this principle is that the subject matter should be divided into some units for presenting it in a certain order. The division of the content should be followed by the presentation in such a manner that each unit should seem to be complete in itself. One unit should create curiosity for other units. In this way, by presenting the contents after dividing them into units, the lesson becomes very easy for the pupils. They acquire knowledge easily without any difficulty. By not doing so, the lesson becomes complicated and the pupils fail to understand anything. Hence, for successful teaching, the division of the lesson into an order of units or steps is necessary. (Bed 2nd Year What do you understand by principles of teaching)

10. Principle of Revision: The meaning of this principle is that whatever the subject matter is taught to the pupils, it should be revised by the pupils. Psychological experiments and research have shown that revision is very much essential in learning. In other words, without experiments and revision, everything is forgotten. Therefore, the acquired knowledge should be revised by the pupils not only immediately, but also it should be used repeatedly. The frequency of the revisions depends upon the nature of the lesson. Hence, the more the lesson is difficult, the more revisions should occur. (Bed 2nd Year What do you understand by principles of teaching)

11. Principle of Creation and Recreation: This principle means those activities carryover by the pupils which are recreational and which can develop the creative power of the pupils. This will create interest in the pupils regarding the teaching activity without any fear of the teacher and the school. They will try new actions and they will have an opportunity of expressing creative activities. From this point of view, the principle of recreation is very essential for successful teaching In the twentieth century, so many teaching methods have been developed which are based on the principle of creation and recreation or learning by play-way.

12. Principle of Democratic Dealing: According to the democratic principle, the teacher should adopt a democratic attitude toward the pupils and it should not be dictatorial. In the dictatorship, the pupil’s personality gets repressed. This instigates them to revolt sometimes. Contrary to this, in a democratic setup, every pupil is considered holy and valuable property of the society. Hence, he gets maximum opportunities for developing his self-thinking and independent expression in order to develop his personality.

Since the modern age is dominated by democracy, the teacher should adopt democratic attitudes toward the pupils. It should be remembered that the democratic attitude means the development of the lesson occurred with the help and cooperation of the pupils. He should ask maximum questions and the pupils should be allowed to remove their doubts. This creates the habit of thinking independently in the pupils, Also, their personality will rise to heights by developing the merits like self-confidence, self-esteem, self-respect, etc. (Bed 2nd Year What do you understand by principles of teaching)

Psychological Principles of Teaching

The Psychological principles of teaching affect the teaching process directly or indirectly. These principles are used to turn the learning-process effective. Those psychological principles are as follows:

  1. Principle of Motivation and Interest: Motivation and interest has been considered most important in the teaching-learning process. According to this principle, both the teacher and the learner are to work with interest and motivation.
  2. Principle of Recreation: On some occasions, the pupil feels fatigued in class. It is due to the lengthy teaching task. This fatigue creates boredom in .he pupil and he shows disinteresting in the task. The use of this principle is much needed in the lower classes. Hence, the principle of recreation should be followed in class.
  3. Principle of Repetition and Exercise: Everybody has come to know that the process of forgetting starts in the pupils due to the disuse of the acquired knowledge. Thorndike has experimented in this regard. Hence, repetition exercises should occur in the class daily. The utility of this principle increases among small children.
  4. Principle of Encouraging Creativity and Self-Expression: To encourage creativity and self-expression becomes the duty of the teacher or he should develop the habit of innovations in the pupils. The pupils should be capable of presenting their views and attitudes. (Bed 2nd Year What do you understand by principles of teaching)
  5. Principle of Remedial Teaching: Sometimes there are errors in the pupils and the teaching activities. The teacher should identify these errors and he should provide a remedy to his erroneous teaching activities. It is known as remedial teaching. This task is not so easy. In this, the teacher has to over-company obstructions.
  6. Principle of Sympathy and Cooperation: If a teacher exhibits sufficient sympathy for pupils and contributes to overcoming their difficulties, he can be a good guide for the pupils. Such teachers act as motivation for the pupils
  7. Principle of Reinforcement: The term ‘reinforcement’ is used in the teaching-learning process. It is concerned with making the learning process effective. In the teaching process, reinforcement means the utilization or presentation, or removal of such stimuli so that the possibility of recurrence of any response increases. For example, if a teacher gives some reward to the pupils for correct answers, the possibilities of similar behavior from the pupils increase.
  8. Principle of Imparting Training to Senses: To encourage effective learning, the proper development of the senses is very essential. All types of potentialities or capacities are required for all the aspects of learning such as observation, identification, generalization, experiments, etc. These capacities or potentialities can be attained only through the sense organs. (Bed 2nd Year What do you understand by principles of teaching)

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