A2zNotes.com -Best Bcom BBA Bed Study Material

Bed 2nd Year What do you understand by Programmed Learning Notes Study Material

Bed 2nd Year What do you understand by Programmed Learning Notes Study Material

Bed 2nd Year What do you understand by Programmed Learning Notes Study Material

Bed 2nd Year What do you understand by Programmed Learning Notes Study Material : In this post, you will learn about Programmed Instruction is a new strategy of teaching, it is a highly individualized instructional strategy for the modification of behavior. It originated by B.F. Skinner. According to B. F. Skinner, “Programmed Learning or Instruction has been defined as a method of giving individualized instruction in which the student is active and proceeds at his own pace and is provided with immediate knowledge of the results.

Related Content Programmed Learning 

Bed 2nd Year Education and Knowledge Study Notes
Distinguish between Hardware and Software Technology with 10 examples
Bed 2nd Year What do you understand by phase of teaching? Explain in detail.

Or

View all Bed Notes ➜ <Click here>

Bed 2nd Year What do you understand by Programmed Learning Notes Study Material
Bed 2nd Year What do you understand by Programmed Learning Notes Study Material

Bed 2nd Year Meaning and Definition of Programmed Learning

Programmed Instruction is a new strategy of teaching, it is a highly individualized instructional strategy for the modification of behavior, Modern programmed instruction originated from the psychology of learning and not from technology. It is an application of operant conditioning learning theory of teaching-learning situations.

Defination of Programmed Learning

It originated by B.F. Skinner. It has been defined as a method of individualized instructions in which the student is active and proceeds at his own pace and is provided with immediate knowledge of the result. It is related to students’ activities.

According to B. F. Skinner, “Programmed Learning or Instruction has been defined as a method of giving individualized instruction in which the student is active and proceeds at his own pace and is provided with immediate knowledge of the results. The physical pressure of teacher is not required in this method.”

According to Espich and William (1967), “Programmed instruction is a planned sequence of experiences, leading to proficiency, in terms of the stimulus-response relationship that has proven to be effective.”

According to Smith and Moore (1962), “Programmed instruction is the process of arranging the material to be learned into a series of sequential steps, Usually, it moves the student from a familiar background into a complex and new set of concepts, principles, maxims, and understanding.”

According to Corey, “Designing a strategy in which various kinds of intellectual, emotional and motor experiences are provided ‘to the learner in a controlled situation through a variety of devices like a book, teacher, etc.”

According to, Susan Markle (1969), “Programmed instruction is a method of designing a reproducible sequence of instructional events to produce a measurable and consistent effect on the behaviors of each and every acceptable student.”

According to Dunhill, “Programmed instruction is a method, not a medium of education which will assist us to ensure that each pupil starts from precisely what he knows and proceeds at his own best to a clear-cut objective.”

According to Espich and Williams (1967), “Programmed instruction is a planned sequence of experience, leading of proficiency in terms of the stimulus-response relationship that have provided to be effective.”

Hence, programmed instruction is the process in which students self-study by the teaching machine, textbooks, and a special curriculum. In this, the reaching material is divided into small parts or categories. Thus, programmed learning or teaching is a strategy in which various kinds of intellectual, emotional, and motor experiences are provided to the learner in a controlled situation through a variety of devices like a book, teaching machine, teacher, radio television, etc.

Characteristics of Programmed Teaching or Learning

The main characteristics of programmed teaching are-

  1. It is based on psychological theories.
  2. It is not an audio-visual device, it is a part of education technology.
  3. It is not a test. It is a new strategy of teaching and learning:
  4. It is helpful to develop self-study.
  5. In this method, students are more active.
  6. In this, the content is presented in small frames.
  7. The teaching process is complete between teacher and content interaction.
  8. It is not the solution to educational problems. It is a new instructional strategy for the modification of the behavior of the learner.
  9. It requires more creativity and imaginative efforts to develop highly individualized instruction.
  10. Write the instructional objective in behavioral terms.
  11. With the help of this, we understand the typical concept, of laws in an easy way.
  12. It gives proper feedback on the student’s behavior.
  13. In the absence of a teacher, students can achieve knowledge easily.
  14. In this, the steps are arranged in a logical sequence.
  15. The student learns more in programmed learning instead of traditional teaching.

Principles of Programmed Learning

(Bed 2nd Year What do you understand by Programmed Learning Notes Study Material)

The principles of programmed learning are-

  1. Principle of small steps
  2. Principle of active responding
  3. Principle of immediate reinforcement
  4. Principle of self-pacing
  5. Principle of self-testing
  6. Principle of gaiety

Programmed Learning Notes Study Material
Programmed Learning Notes Study Material

Principle of Small Steps: The subject matter is broken down into a sequence of small steps. Each step is clear and easy to learn. The division or broken process of these steps is followed from “simple to complex”, and “know to unknown”. All these steps are meaningful. A student can take one step at a time. He has to read in small steps by being active.

Principle of Active Responding: In this principle, each selected element behaves as a stimulus, which is bonded to the students to work actively according to the response. The learner has to construct the response. It is an integral part of learning. This principle

Principle of Immediate Confirmation: This principle is based on the psychological concept of reinforcement. The student learns the best if he confirms his response immediately. The confirmation provides reinforcement to the learners. Through this students gain inner satisfaction.

Principle of self-pacing: It is based on individual differences. Because no two persons are equal in this world. The ability, interest, and learning capacity of one person are totally or mutually different from another person. So all the students learn in the same way or the same quantity. In programming, each student can work on each step as slowly or as quickly as he can.

Principle of Self-testing: Students can find out the drawback of themselves with the help or use of tests that are helpful to re-planned the program. In this

principle student evaluates themselves. A student leaves the record of his study because he has to write a response for each step on a response sheet. This reminds the principle of self-testing.

Principle of Gaiety: Student gain gaiety when he is successful in their work or program.

Assumptions Regarding Programmed Learning

The programmed instruction has the following assumptions-

  1. A student learned micro-teaching procedure: better by being active.
  2. A student learns better if he is motivated to learn by confirming his responses.
  3. A student learns better if the content matter is presented in small steps.
  4. A student learns better if he commits minimum errors in his learning.
  5. A student learns better if the sequence of content is psychologically workable.

Objectives of Programmed learning

  1. To help the student to learn by doing.
  2. To provide the situation to learn at his own pace.
  3. To help students to learn without the presence of a teacher.
  4. To present the content in a controlled manner and logically related steps.
  5. To study by himself and assess his own performance by comparing with it the given answer.

Steps for Development of Programmed Learning

The development of programmed learning is a very challenging job for a teacher. The mastery over the topic, knowledge, and practice are essential for it. The following steps are important in preparing programmed learning.

  1. Selection of the topic to be programmed.
  2. Identifying the objectives.
  3. Content analysis for developing the instructional procedure.
  4. Writing objectives in behavioral terms.
  5. Confusing criterion test.
  6. Deciding the appropriate paradigm and strategy of a program.
  7. Writing program frames and individual tryouts.
  8. Group tryout and editing the program and preparing the final draft.
  9. Master validation of programmed learning in terms of internal and external criteria.
  10. Preparation of a manual of the program.

These steps are followed in preparing an effective program. The procedure is very time-consuming and laborious. The programmed text is different from conventional text because the workability of the material is determined based on students’ responses.

Limitations of Programmed Instruction

  1. Programmed instruction has some limitations-
  2. Ignorance of the interest and needs of the students.
  3. In this students can learn in controlled situations.
  4. Need for trained teachers who are not available easily.
  5. Difficult to construct steps.
  6. Remedial teaching can not be possible.

Types of Programmed Instruction or Learning

They are three types-
  1. Linear Programming
  2. Branching Programming
  3. Mathetics Programming

🤞 Don’t miss these Notes!

We don’t spam! Read more in our privacy policy

Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published.