Bed 2nd Year What do you understand by the forms of Educational Technology
Bed 2nd Year What do you understand by the forms of Educational Technology: In this post, we will learn about Bed 2nd Year What do you understand by the forms of Educational Technology. In Bed 2nd Year there is one of the most important questions comes from Teacher, Teaching, and Technology. you will learn about Bed 2nd Year What do you understand by the forms of Educational Technology. Teaching is a social and professional activity. It is a process of development. Teaching is a system of actions that induce learning through interpersonal relationships. and all the rest you will study in this Blog
Related Posts to see:-
View all Bed Notes ➜ <Click here>
Forms of Educational Technology
Teaching is a social and professional activity. It is a process of development. Teaching is a system of actions that induce learning through interpersonal relationships.
Teaching technology is the application of philosophical, sociological, and scientific knowledge to teaching for achieving some specific learning objectives.
Teaching is a purposeful activity. The ultimate goal of teaching is to bring around the development of a child. The knowledge and practice which help in realizing the goal is the content matter of teaching technology.
Teaching is an art as well as science because teaching can be studied objectively and scientifically. Teaching has a scientific foundation. This has evolved the concept of teaching technology. I.K. Davies, N.L. Gagne, Robert Gagne, Bruner, and Robert Glaser have contributed significantly to this area of education. Silverman has termed it as constructive educational technology,
- Teaching is a scientific process and it has two major components – content and communication.
- The desired learning structures may be generated with the help of appropriate teaching situations.
- A close relationship may be established between teaching and learning,
- The teaching activities can be modified and improved.
- Teaching skills can be developed with the help of feedback devices.
- The learning objectives may be achieved by performing teaching activities.
Content-I.K. Davies and Robert Glaser have developed the content of teaching technology and classified it into four elements. In the following four-step, Davies presents the structure of the content-
- The planning of Teaching: The first step includes content analysis identification of objectives and writing objectives in behavioral terms.
- Organization of Teaching: The second step consists of teaching strategies and tactics for achieving the objectives of teaching. The rules of instruction are identified under this step.
- Leading of Teaching: In the third step, appropriate communication strategies for teaching are identified. The techniques of motivation are employed for leading the behaviors of the students. The knowledge regarding reports between teachers and students is considered under this step.
- Controlling of Teaching: The last step concerns an evaluation of teaching: The main focus of this step is to assess the learning objectives in terms of student performance. The decision is taken about the realization of the teaching objective. The learner’s performance provides the basis for the feedback to the teacher and learners.
Robert Glaser has also provided four-step of leaching as a Basic Teaching Model-
- Instructional objectives
- Entering behaviors
- instruction procedures
- Performance assessment.
These steps include more or less the same contents.
In addition to these step models, teaching theory and paradigm, teaching strategies, and tactics are also included in the content of teaching technology.
Characteristics of Teaching Technology
- All three types of objectives—Cognitive affective and psychomotor can be achieved by this technology.
- The content structure can be related to the communication structure for achieving the learning objectives.
- The philosophical, sociological, psychological, and scientific knowledge can be applied to the teaching process.
- The teaching can be organized from memory level to reflective level.
- The teaching process can be made effective with the help of teaching technology.
- The teaching theories can be formulated by the use of teaching technology.
- The pupil teachers and in-service teachers can improve their teaching and make it more purposive by the use of the teaching technology.
- Teaching technology implies the input, process, and output aspects side by side.
Instructional technology means a network of techniques or devices employed to accomplish a certain defined set of learning objectives.
Instructional technology implies the application of psychological, sociological, and scientific principles and knowledge to instruction for achieving the specific objectives of learning.
B.F. Skinner, Robert Glaser, Norman A. Crowder, Mager, and Gibert have contributed significantly in the area of instructional technology. The origin of instructional technology is from psychological laboratory experiments. The most important example of instructional technology is ‘programmed instruction’. Programmed instruction and instructional technology can be used interchangeably.
S.M. Mc Murin has defined the term instructional technology comprehensively, “Instructional technology is a systematic way of designing, carrying out and evaluating the total process of learning and teaching in terms of specific objectives based on research. On human learning and communication and employing a combination of human and non-human resources to bring about more effective instruction.”
Assumptions. The instructional technology involves the following assumptions-
- The content matter can be divided into its elements and each element can be presented independently.
- The external learning conditions can be created by arranging the elements in a logical sequence.
- The appropriate reinforcement can be provided continuously by the use of instruction.
- The students can learn according to their needs and rate of learning.
- The strategies and tactics of instruction can be used for achieving a certain well-defined set of instructional objectives.
- The student can learn successfully without the physical presence of a teacher.
Content. The instructional technology involves the strategies and tactics which can be used outside and inside the classroom teaching. Teaching is instruction but the instruction is not the teaching. The instructional technology consists of the following content-
- Meaning and definition of Instructional Technology,
- Definition of Programmed Instruction and its Origin.
- Meaning, assumptions, and structure of linear programming and its principles.
- Definition, assumptions, principles, and structure of branching programming.
- Meaning, assumptions, principles, and instruction of mathematical programming.
- Learner-controlled instruction and computer-assisted instruction.
- Development of Programmed Instruction Material-(a) Planning (b) Writing frames (c) Evaluation.
- Adnustive devices for controlling individual differences.
- Ruleg and Egrule system, and
- Priming and promoting devices.
Characteristics of Instructional Technology
- The cognitive objectives can be achieved effectively by the use of instructional technology.
- The learner gets an opportunity to learn according to their own pace. Thus, individual differences are controlled in this technology.
- The right responses of the students are confirmed for providing reinforcement continuously.
- The instructional technology incorporates psychological learning theories and principles.
- The learning external conditions, contiguity practice, and reinforcement are created with the help of instruction.
- The instructional theory may be developed by using this technology in the learning process.
- The instructional technology can be employed in the storage of effective teachers.
- It provides a deep insight into the content structure and sequence of its elements.
Psychology is the science of behavior. It studies the nature arid structure of behavior of the organisms. Learning is the modifications of behavior through activities and experiences. The educational activities are designed to bring desirable changes in the behavior of the students. Psychology deals/with every type of human behavior. Thus, behavioral technology has a wider field than educational technology. It covers the area of industry, defense, commerce, communication administration health, motivation, training, education, teaching, and instruction. These areas require a specific type of behavior. B.F. Skinner has referred to the term behavioral technology in his book “Technology and Teaching’.
The teaching and instruction activities are organized to achieve specific learning objectives by bringing the desired behavior change among the students. Thus, teaching and instructional technology are the two forms of behavioral technology. But in the field of education, it refers mainly to teacher behavior.
Behavioral technology is the application of scientific knowledge in modifying teacher behavior. This is also termed training technology.
Amidon, Ned A. Flanders, B. F. Skinner, Ober, and Anderson have contributed significantly in the area of behavioral technology. It is limited to teacher behavior and teaching behavior.
Assumptions. The behavioral technology is based on the following assumptions-
- Teacher behavior is observable.
- Teacher behavior is measurable and quantifiable.
- Teacher behavior is relative.
- Teacher behavior is social and psychological.
- Teacher behavior is modifiable.
Content. Behavioral technology has a wide field but the contribution of D.G. Ryan, Skinner, Flanders, and Amidon are considered. The theory and practice of classroom teacher behavior are included in behavior technology.” consists of the following content matter-
- Meaning and definition of teacher behavior.
- Assumptions and theory of teacher behavior.
- System of observation for classroom interaction.
- Encoding and decoding process of teacher behavior.
- The interpretation and evaluation. of teacher behavior.
- Models of classroom interaction.
- Simulated Social Skill Training.
- T-Group training.
- Team teaching.
Behavioral technology does not confine only to studying classroom teacher behavior, but the mechanism of feedback devices for modification of teacher behavior is also employed for developing teaching skills and competencies.
Characteristics of Behavioural Technology
- It has the focus to achieve the psychomotor objectives. Specific teaching skills can be developed.
- The classroom behavior component and flow of behavior can be studied and suggestions can be given for the desired change.
- The knowledge and practice of behavioral technology may be an important instrument for training colleges to produce effective teachers and competency-based teacher training.
- The proper reinforcement can be provided to pupil-teachers during teaching practice.
- The content and communication aspects can be improved by the use of feedback devices.
- The individual differences between pupil-teachers can be considered in providing the training of teaching.
- The teaching performance can be evaluated objectively and systematically.
- Behavioral technology may be helpful in developing the theory of teaching.