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Bed 2nd Year What do you understand by Water and Land Pollution

Bed 2nd Year What do you understand by Water and Land Pollution

Bed 2nd Year What do you understand by Water and Land Pollution

Bed 2nd Year What do you understand by Water and Land Pollution: In this post, we will learn about Bed 2nd Year What do you understand by Water and Land Pollution. In Bed 2nd Year there is one of the most important questions comes from Environment Education. You will learn about Bed 2nd Year What do you understand by Water and Land Pollution. Teaching is a social and professional activity. It is a process of development. Teaching is a system of actions that induce learning through interpersonal relationships. and all the rest you will study in this Blog.

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Bed 2nd Year What do you understand by Water and Land Pollution
Bed 2nd Year What do you understand about Water and Land Pollution

Water Pollution

Meaning and Definition of Water Pollution

Water is the most important natural resource. It is vital for the maintenance of all forms of life and vegetation. We depend on water for irrigation, industry, domestic needs, drinking purpose, sanitation, and disposal of waste. Our water bodies are ponds, lakes, seas, rivers, and oceans which have become polluted due to industrial development and urbanization.

“The contamination of water with soluble sewage and industrial waste is called water pollution.”

“Foreign materials either from natural and other sources are contaminated with water supplies and may be harmful to life, because of their toxicity, reduction of normal oxygen level of water, aesthetically unsuitable effects and spread of epidemics.” -World Health Organization (1966)

Water pollution may be defined as an alteration in physical, chemical and biological properties of water that may cause harmful effects on human and aquatic life.”

“Water pollution is defined as a natural or induced change in the quality of water which renders it unsuitable or dangerous as regards food, human and animal health, agriculture, fishing or leisure pursuits.” -P. Vivier (1958)

Water pollution refers to:

(i) deteriorate the physical, chemical, and biological quality of water.

(ii) causes harmful effects on man, animals, and vegetation and also the quality of the environment.

(iii) due to natural (landslides, volcanic eruptions, dust, soil erosion) and human activities (industry, agriculture, urbanization, radioactive mining, etc.) (Bed 2nd Year What do you understand by Water and Land Pollution)

(iv) deteriorate the quality of the environment.

Source of Water Pollution

There are two main sources of water pollution are as follows:

  1. Natural Sources. Water pollutants include soil erosion, volcanic eruption, landslides, coastal and cliff erosion, floods, and the decomposition of plants and animals. (Bed 2nd Year What do you understand by Water and Land Pollution)
  2. Man-induced Sources. Water pollutants include industrial development, urbanization, and agricultural sources, cultural sources (religious fairs and pilgrimage). (Bed 2nd Year What do you understand by Water and Land Pollution)

Kumbha fair at Allahabad is an example of a cultural source of water pollution.

The main sources of water pollution are:

(i) Sewage and other waste in cities.

(ii) Industrial effluents and waste products.

(iii) Agricultural discharge, chemical fertilizers used, and

(iv) Thermal power plants and nuclear plants waste.

Type of Water Pollution

Water pollution may be divided on the basis of sources and storage of water such as:

(i) Surface water pollution

(ii) Lake water pollution

(iii) Groundwater pollution

(iv) Sea water pollution and

(v) River water pollution.

Water pollution is also classified on the basis of sources of water pollution e.g.:

(i) Sewage water pollution

(ii) Domestic waste pollution

(iii) Industrial wastewater pollution, and

(iv) Solid waste water pollution

There are other sources of water pollution:

 (i) Groundwater pollution by septic tanks, seepage pits, etc.

(ii) Marine water pollution- on the other way rivers receives a huge quantity of sewage, garbage, agricultural discharge, biocides, and heavy metals. (Bed 2nd Year What do you understand by Water and Land Pollution)

(iii) Mercury pollution-It is through industrial effluents. It is responsible for the smallpox epidemic.

(iv) Lead pollution – The main source of lead in water is industrial effluents. It causes the damage to liver and kidneys.

(v) Fluoride Pollution It is naturally present in water. The arid and semiarid soils are due to fluoride contents. It causes bone disease.

Methods of Assessment of Water Quality

There are various methods and programmes which have been introduced to assess the quality of water:

1. Assessment of Water Quality: Under the National Water Quality Monitoring Programme, the water quality monitoring of rivers is being done. Till 1987 this network had 200 monitoring stations on rivers all over the country. In 1988, there were added 106 stations to the network. (Bed 2nd Year What do you understand by Water and Land Pollution)

Thus at present then are 306 monitoring stations on river basins all over the country. These include also 11 groundwater stations and 27 stations on the Ganga under the Gana Action Plan. (Bed 2nd Year What do you understand by Water and Land Pollution)

It is planned to increase the number of such stations to 400 in 1990. The stations monitor in respect of 19 parameters such as total dissolved solids, BOD, metals, and nitrates. (Bed 2nd Year What do you understand by Water and Land Pollution)

2. Assessment of Coastal Water Quality: The CPCB in collaboration with the Department of Ocean Development has identified 173 monitoring stations all along the Indian Coast to assess the water quality.

Four SPCBs have also been involved. Data on 25 parameters are being processed to formula schemes to control and monitor pollution of the coastal waters. (Bed 2nd Year What do you understand by Water and Land Pollution)

Prevention and Control of Water Pollution

Control of water pollution requires several remedial measures and Centro Water Control Acts. The following measures are suggested to control water pollution:

(i) Maintaining stability of the ecosystem,

(ii) Reutilization and recycling of waste,

(iii) Removal of pollutants, and

(iv) Management of water pollution.

  1. Maintaining Stability of the Ecosystem. It is the most scientific met to control and prevent water pollution. The basic principles are the reductio waste input, thus water pollution is controlled at the source. Several met biological, as well as physical, can be used to restore species diversity and maintain ecological balance in the water bodies.
  2. Reutilization and Recycling of Waste. The various types included industrial effluents and thermal pollutants which may be retail. The urban waste is reused to generate cheaper fuel gas and electricity efforts are being made in the development of suitable technology for waste so that it can be utilized in agriculture and prepare some useful products
  3. Removal of Water Pollutants. There are various types of pollution present in water bodies which can be removed by suitable methods of absorption, electro dialysis, ions exchange, reverse osmosis, etc. This process is used for purifying water from sewage. (Bed 2nd Year What do you understand by Water and Land Pollution)

Solar power can also be used for cleaning up polluted water cheaply. of experiments are being conducted in our country and also in Western countries. (Bed 2nd Year What do you understand by Water and Land Pollution)

Land Pollution or Soil Pollution

Soil is a very important environmental component for humans and animals Once. It is the basic medium for food, vegetation, and natural resources. (Bed 2nd Year What do you understand by Water and Land Pollution)

It is the base for the development of human culture and civilization. There are various aspects and components of soils-texture, structure, moisture, profiles, and horizons. (Bed 2nd Year What do you understand by Water and Land Pollution)

“The contamination of soil with excess chemicals, fertilizers, insecticides, herbicides are known as soil pollution.”

The decrease in the quality of soils either due to human activities or natural Sources or by both is known as soil pollution or soil degradation. (Bed 2nd Year What do you understand by Water and Land Pollution)

Soil pollution is caused due to soil erosion, decrease in plant nutrients, decrease in soil microorganisms, excess or deficit of moisture content, high fluctuation of temperature, and lack of humus content.

The Sources of Soil Pollution

The major sources of soil pollution are accelerated rate of soil erosion, soil eruption, deforestation, excessive use of chemical fertilizers, pesticides, insecticides, polluted wastewater from industries, urban areas, forest fires, a few micro-organisms, dumpling of urban and industrial wastes, water-logging and related capillary process treating processes drought, etc.

The air and water pollutants are also responsible for soil degradation. The sources are divided into four categories:

  1. Physical sources, e.g., soil erosion, volcanic eruption.
  2. Biological sources, e.g., the micro-organisms, bacteria, and protozoa.
  3. Air-born sources, e.g., thermal power plants, industry, and factory waste products.
  4. Urban and industrial sources. Urban wastes degrade the soil properties, urban sewage pollutes the soil.

The Effects of Soil Pollution

Soil pollution affects human beings, animals, and plants adversely degrade the quality of soils, and soil pollution results in a decrease in agricultural action. Soil erosion converts the fertile soil into a wasteland. The use of chemical fertilizers, pesticides, and pesticides and several deaths. (Bed 2nd Year What do you understand by Water and Land Pollution)

Control of Soil Pollution

It is very essential to control and prevent soil because the existing animals and vegetation depend upon the quality of the soil. It is necessary for man, animals, and plants to come from soils. The essential commodities suggestions  to control soil pollution:

(i) To check the soil erosion by using control measures.

(ii) To use judiciously chemical fertilizers and pesticides and insecticides.

(iii) To restrict the use of D.D.T.

(iv) To dispose properly of urban and industrial wastes.

(v) Crop management and proper land use.

(vi) To educate the farmers about the use of fertilizers and biocides.

(vii) To provide awareness through adult education.

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