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# Bed 2nd Year What is linear programming? What do liner and extrinsic mean? Study Material Notes

Bed 2nd Year What is linear programming? What do liner and extrinsic mean? Study Material Notes: In this Post you will learn about Linear Programme, Meaning and Defination of Content Frame, Remedial Frame. The base of this programming is psychological and the main aim of this is to give instruction. It is a new strategy of instruction. The verbal meaning of the linear program is ‘Work of Straight line’. A2zNotes.comProvide Best Study Material of Bed 2nd Year. Here we have Provided you what is Linear Programming and what do linear and extrinsic mean Study Material Notes

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## Linear Programming in Bed 2nd Year

It is given by Professor B.F. Skinner in 1954. The base of this programming is psychological and the main aim of this is to give instruction. It is a new strategy of instruction. It is a highly individualized instructional strategy for the modification of behavior. It is used. for instructional purposes but it can also be employed as a mechanism of feedback device for improving teaching efficiency. The theoretical knowledge of programmed instruction is essential to use as a feedback device for the modification of teacher behavior.

The verbal meaning of the linear program is ‘Work of Straight line’. In which students learn entering behavior to terminal behavior in a straight line. In this, the content is present in small steps in a systematic way. The student reacts to each step, which is related to terminal behavior.

Step (1) → (2) → (3) → (4) + (5) + (6) + (7) → (End)

Entering Behaviour                                               Terminal Behaviour

Each student read frames or steps one by one and gain knowledge. Each response teacher gives feedback to the student.

According to Skinner, “The best way to teach a student is to break the subject matter into meaningful segments of information and write small steps in such a way that only the correct responses are likely to occur: Students learn better when they are successful. The student should be provided immediate knowledge of the result of his performance.”

### Assumptions of Linear Programme Bed 2nd Year

The main assumptions of linear programs are

1. In this student is motivated by the correct response.
2. In this students are active in learning by doing.
3. In this no role in the remedial teaching.
4. The sequence of the content is according to teaching maxims, by which students learn more.
5. In this, the presentation of the content is in an easy and simple way or in small steps. which are helpful to more effective teaching.

### Characteristics of a Good Linear Programme

A Good Linear Programme should possess the following characteristics-

1. In this program, all the students learn in the same frame.
2. It is precisely written in transparently communication media and optimum size.
3. The printing of the program is neat and clean and it is free from mistakes.
4. Mostly creative responses are used in linear programming.
5. Control student response in the linear program.
6. The difficult concepts can be taught effectively by a good program.
7. It provides learning by doing the situation. Thus a student can learn without the physical presence of a teacher.
8. The feedback is designed so as to minimize the possibilities of errors in response. The error rate should necessarily be less than ten percent.
9. It is designed in a logical sequence of content structure and it works psychologically.
10. The linear program provides a clear understanding of the concepts and sufficient practice of the skill that is aimed to be provided.
11. The sequence of the item is in decreasing order of stimulus-support finally reducing to the natural stimulus of the end.

### Structure of Linear Programme Study Material and Notes

This content is divided into small steps or frames, three steps are included in-

• Stimulus
• Response
• Reinforcement
1. Stimulus: It is based on behavioral objectives. The main emphasis is given to the environment variables. The contextual stimulus provides the situations for the response. It is not sufficient enough to emit the desired response, therefore, additional stimuli are used to help the learner for emitting desired response. Thus, the stimulus is an essential aspect of a stimulus.
2. Response: The learner has to emit the desired response for the stimulus. It is called the dependent variable. The nature of the response depends on the form of stimulus. The learner acquires new knowledge by emitting the correct response. Every response provides new knowledge and it is an integral part of desired behavioral change.

The correct response provides new knowledge and the response form is the behavior to leads to terminal behavior. The confirmation of response provides the reinforcement to the linear. In this type of programming two types of responses are emitted by the learning-

• Constructive Response
• Discriminant Response

In every frame, a blank is provided to construct a response by the learner. The response for the blank is related to new behavior or desired response. It is known as construct response. It is most commonly used to create a situation for the learners.

In some situations, two alternatives are given for the response. The learner has to select the right response for the situation. The correct response is an integral part of the desired behavior, called the discriminant response.

1. Reinforcement: Reinforcement is the consequence of an occurrence that increases the probability of that response occurring in the future.

### Limitations of Linear Programme

1. It is a very costly method.
2. It takes more time.
3. In this programming, students are not free.
4. This program develops only the cognitive domain in the student and Ignores the affective and psychomotor domain.
5. It is not helpful to create material for all the school subjects.

### Branching Programming

It is also called Intrinsic Programme. This model has been developed by Norman A. Crowder in 1954. He was a psychologist with United States Air Force. According to him, trouble-shooting was the best learned through solving problems. The essential problem is of controlling the communication process by the use of feedback. The student’s response serves primarily as a means for determining whether the communication process has been effective and at the same time allows appropriate corrective or remedial action to be taken when the communication has been ineffective. Crowder’s approach is thus based essentially on the psychology of individual difference. Indeed he is very little concerned with the nature of the learning process itself.

Thus, the identifying feature of the Crowderian program is the way in which material is presented to the student on the basis of his performance. The branching programming is particularly suitable for dealing with material that involves complex problem-solving strategies. The subject matter should have a logical basis or structure which can be systematically developed frame by frame.

### Meaning and Definition

The greatest characteristic of this model is that it has been developed by keeping the individual needs, interests, and attitudes of learners. It is called a branching program because more than one piece of information is given in a frame here and students take a decision internally on which information is according to their needs.

In branching, programming teachers evaluate the error of the students. Diagnose this error due to a proper solution. Branching programs are of two types:

1. Content Frame
2. Remedial Frame

In the content frame student repeat response, positive confirmation, new information, etc. are included and negative confirmation, cause of a negative thing, and repeated responses are included in the remedial frame.

“It is defined as a program which adapts to the need of the students without the medium of extrinsic device such as a computer.”

-Crowd

### The superiority of Branching Programming over Linear Programme

Crowder differed from Skinner in the following ways-

1. A linear program is based on experiments on rats, pigeons, etc. and when the same analogies are applied to human behavior, quantitatively different learning is seen. The branching program on the other hand directly deals with the behavior of humans.
2. The linear program always results in slow learning due to the process of learning through small steps. It may be just a waste of time. The branching program does not follow the principle of small steps.
3. The linear program has a construct response while the branching program has a multiple-choice response.
4. A linear program is least concerned with .ndivtdual differences whereas a branching program to all types of students alike.
5. A linear program is suited to achieving lower objectives of the cognitive domain only whereas the branching program is suitable to achieve a higher level of objectives also.
6. Only one piece of information is given in one frame in the linear program but the branching program has much information in one frame.
7. Linear programming always results in slow learning due to the process of learning through small steps. It may be just a waste of time. The branching program does not follow the principle of small steps.

### Characteristics of Branching Programming

The main characteristic of the Branching Programme are-

1. This program immediately gives feedback to the students.
2. It is mainly concerned with teaching and instruction rather than learning.
3. It is used to achieve high educational objectives.
4. The construction work is easy in this program.
5. It is particularly suitable for dealing with materials that involve complex problem-solving.
6. It is used as an adjustive device to facilitate individual variations.
7. It is easier to develop branching program frames or instructional material than linear programs.
8. Here learner proceeds to the process of learning in a very careful manner because he has to deal with a number of information at a time.
9. It can provide a better chance for free-thinking and imagination to students. Thus, it is very suitable for creative and talented students.
10. The research findings have revealed that it is effective for realizing higher cognitive objectives of learning.
11. Intrinsic programming is effectively used for teaching as well as remedial purpose.
12. It can be used for conceptual as well as descriptive content of teaching.

### Assumptions of Branching Programme

This type of programming is based on the following assumptions-

1. Presentation of content in a big firm, not a small form. Because a student learns better if he is exposed to the whole concept.
2. The wrong responses do not necessarily hinder learning but they help in diagnosis and providing remediation for their weakness.
3. A student learns better if remediation is provided simultaneously for his weakness. The teaching and remediation should go side for effective learning
4. This is essentially based on the psychology of individual differences. This provides an opportunity to choose the learning path according to his need and requirement. Thus it is highly individualized instruction.

### Principles of Branching Programme Study Material Notes

The branching program is based on the four principles-

2. Exposition
3. Diagnosis
4. Remediation

1. Task Analysis: In this principle, the work is divided according to its elements. These elements are arranged in a sequence, which are helpful for learning.
2. Expectation: In this principle, the learner is exposed to the whole concept with the help of suitable illustrations and chosen words. The learner reads the frame to have mastery over the concept.
3. Diagnosis: This principle identifies the weakness of the learner. When the learner attempts the wrong option, his weakness comes from knowledge. This weakness is diagnosed with the help of multiple-choice questions.
4. Remediation: After diagnosing the weakness of the learner, he is provided with a fresh frame to come to the right response, called remediation.

### Limitations of Branching Programme Study Material Notes

The limitations of a branching program are as follows—

1. It is a time-consuming approach to learning.
2. The preparation cost of the program is very high.
3. It depends on the planning and imaginative power of the programmer. It is he who decides the level of the frame and the standard of questions asked from the frame.
4. The students take little interest to use scrambled textbooks because they have not followed the sequence of pages in their learning.