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CTET Active And Passive Voice English Notes

CTET Active And Passive Voice English Notes

CTET Active And Passive Voice English Notes

Formation of Passive Voice

Passive Voice consists of an appropriate tense of ‘be’ or ‘morals’ followed by the parturticiple or third form of the Verb.

Using the Passive Voice gives us the option of not mentioning the person or thing responsible for the action often called ‘the agent’ or ‘the doer’ of the action.

CTET Active And Passive Voice English Notes
CTET Active And Passive Voice English Notes

CTET Active And Passive Voice English Notes

  1. Mentioning the agent with ‘by’. When we use the passive, we can of course mention the agent at the end of the sentence by using ‘by’. This puts emphasis on the agent.

Example:

  1. John was beaten by Suresh.
  2. His best friend was killed by a grenade.
  3. Mentioning thing or methods used : We can mention something that the agent used to perform the action after the preposition ‘With’. Example :
  4. A circle was drawn in the dirt with a stick.
  5. Moisture must be drawn out first with salt.
  6. With some verbs we put ‘at’ ‘to’ or ‘in’ depending upon nature of verbs.

Example:

  1. I was disappointed at her behaviour.
  2. I am interested in this Job.
  3. Tenants are obliged to pay their rent on time.

A few transitive verbs refer to states rather than action. When some of these verbs are used in the passive, the is put after the preposition ‘with’. Here is a list of transitive verbs referring to states which are used with within the passive.

Cram, decorate, ornament, crowd, fill and through

Example :

  1. The room was filled with pleasant furni ture.
  2. The railings were decorated with thou sands of bouquets.
  3. Phrasal verbs which consist of a transitive verbs followed by an adverb or by an adverb and a preposition, can be used in the passive.

Example:

  1. I was talked into meeting with Rajiv Sharma at a posh restaurant.
  2. Two totally opposing views have been put forward to explain this phenomenon.
  3. Because of their meaning same transitive verbs are usually used in the passive. The agent of the action is usually thought to be not worth mentioning or is not known.

The following transitive verbs are usually used in the passive.

Acclaimed, alleged, annihilated, baffled, born, compressed, conditioned, constructed, couched, cremated, dazed, deafened, debased, deemed, disconcerted, dubbed, dwarfed, earmarked, empowered, fined, gutted, hearled, horrified, hospitalised, indicated, inundated, jailed, mesmerised, misdirected, overcame, paralysed, penalized, perpetrated, pilloried, populated, prized, punctuated. rationed, reconciled, reprieved, re-united, rumoured, scheduled, shipped, shipwrecked, short-listed, shrouded, staffed, stranded, strewn, subsumed, suspended, swamped, and wounded.

Some phrasal verbs are also used in the passive bowled over. caught up, handed down, pensioned off. ploughed up, rained off. sealed down, struck off, sworn in, taken aback, written into.

Example:

  1. He was deemed to be the guardian of the child.
  2. The meeting is scheduled for Nov. 23.
  3. They were bowled over by a number of visitors who came to the show.
  4. Sudhir was somewhat taken awack by hiss directress.
  5. A few transitive verbs are rarely used in the passive because the thing affected by the action they describe is rarely the thing we are interested.

The following transitive verbs are rarely used in the passive.

Elude, escape, flee, get, have, let, like, race, resemble, suit, survive.

The following phrasal verbs containing a transitive verbs are rarely used in the passive.

Band together, bite back, boom out, brush up. call down on, cast back.chuck in.cry out, case off. eke but, flick over, get back, get down. give over, have on, have out, heave up, hunt up. jab at, jack in. jerk out. let through. peace out, phone back, ring back, ring out, sit out, sob out, stand off, tide over, wait out, walk off, while away.

  1. In the case of di-transitive such as ‘give’.”teach’ and ‘show’ which can have an indirect object as well as a direct object in an active clause, either object can be the subject of passive voice.

CTET Active And Passive Voice English Notes

Example:

  1. Active Voice : An uncle had taught her logie.

Passive Voice: She had been taught logic by an uncle.

or

Logic had been taught her by an uncle.

  1. Active Voice: I gave him some money.

Passive Voice: Some money was given him by me.

or

He was given some money by me.

  1. There is a group of transitive Verb which can have a complement after their object. When these verbs are used in the passive, the complement is put directly after the verbs.

Here is a list of verbs which can be used in this way:

Cut, drive, get, knock, make, paint, pat, pick, plane, render, rub, send, short sweep. turn wir keep, hold, leave, account, believe, consider.fi hold, judge, presume. reckon, think, call, certifi declare, label. pronounce. term. brand, decla designate, label. proclaim. term, christen, duh name, nickname, burn. eat, find, like, prefer serve, show, and want.

Example:

  1. In August he was elected Vice President of India.
  2. In many ways the gathering could be successful.
  3. 30 bombers were believed shot down.
  4. More than forty people were burned alive.
  5. Many intransitive phrasal verbs can be used in the passive. The verbs are followed by a preposition and a noun group, referring to the thing affected by the action that verb describes. The object of the preposition can be made the subject of the passive form of the verb. The preposition remains after the verb. with no object after it.

Example:

  1. The performance had been paid for by a local cultural society.
  2. The farm labourer used to be looked down

on

  1. I was afraid of being done away with.
  2. “Get’ is sometimes used in the passive form In such type of the structure the agent is nou at usually mentioned.

Example:

  1. Our car gets cleaned about once every two months –
  2. My husband got fined in Germany crossing a road.
  3. Not mentioning the agent we may want this for one of these reasons:

(i) Because we do not know who of un the agent is. en

Example:

The fence between the two house been removed in

(ii) Because it is not important who the agent is.

Example:

Such items should be carefully packed in tea chests. Because it is obvious who or what the

Example:

She found that she was not being paid the same as him.

(iv) Because the agent has already been mentioned

Example:

Her pictures of cats were executed with tremendous humour.

(v) Because people in general are the agents.

Example:

Both of these books can be obtained from the market.

(vi) Because we wish to conceal the agent’s identity or distance ourselves from our own action.

Example:

  1. The original has been destroyed.
  2. The government was forced to say that the report would be implemented.

(vii) In accounts of processes and scientific

experiments, the passive is used and no agent is mentioned because the focus is on what happen and not on what makes it happen

Example:

Food is put in jars, the jars and their contents are heated to a temperature which is maintained long enough to ensure that all bacteria, moulds and viruses are destroyed.

(viii) The passive form of a reporting verb is often used in an impersonal ‘it’ structure, when it is clear whose words or thoughts you are giving, the words or thoughts of people in general.

CTET Active And Passive Voice English Notes

Example:

  1. It was agreed that he would come and see us again the next day.
  2. It was rumoured that he had been sentenced to life imprisonment but had escaped

There are certain rules by which an active voice can be transformed into Passive Voice

Rule 1: Interchange of Subject and Object –For changing Active Voice to Passive Voice Subject is changed to Object and Object is changed to Subject

Active : Ram loves Shyam.

Passive : Shyam is loved by Ram.

Active : Hari is teaching the students.

Passive : The students are being taught by Hari

Rule 2: While changing Active Voice to Passive, we do not separate articles, adjectives and adjective phrase from its Subject or Object. We put them with its Subject or Object.

Active : All the children heard an interes ting story.

Passive : An interesting story was heard by all the children

Rule 3: The Object of Active Voice which are in the form of pronoun is changed in this way

Me changes to I

Us changes to We

Him changes to

He Her changes to She

Them changes to They

Note: There are no changes in You and It. Nouns are also not changed.

Active : Ram loves her.

Passive : She is loved by Ram.

Active : Mohan hates them.

Passive : They are hated by them.

Rule 4: Changes in the Verb.

(i) Past Participle or Third form of the verb is always used.

(ii) Before using the main verb, verb to be (is, are, am, was, were, be, been, bein is used in accordance with the num and tense of the subject.

More CTET English Notes

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