Distinguish between Hardware and Software Technology with 10 examples
Distinguish between Hardware and Software Technology with 10 examples: In this post, A2zNotes will teach you about distinguishing between Hardware and Software Technology. Hardware and Software technology is one of the important Topics in B. Ed Teacher, Teaching and Technology. The Related questions to this topic have been given below:-
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Types of Educational Technology
First Educational Technology of Hardware Approach: It is also known as Hardware Approach to education or audio-visual aids. Its origin lies in the application of physical sciences or engineering to education and training systems. It has the major assumption that the technology of machines is closely related to the technology of teaching. It is important to note that the teaching machine is the only mechanical aid to be deliberately designed and invented to fulfill instructional requirements. All other audio-visual aids are designed and manufactured for improving communication systems,s not for educational ones, but now we are using them (radio, television, tape-recorder, record-player, etc.) for instructional purposes. Initially, these machines were developed for markets other than education.
In this way, the process of teaching-learning has been gradually mechanized through the use of teaching machines, language laboratory, radio, television, tape-record, videotape, and projectors, the mechanization is being introduced in the preservation, transmission, and advancement of human knowledge. The teacher can deal with larger and larger groups of students by displaying his talk on radio and television. Indeed the educational and training system is able to deal with an increased number of students and the cost per student has been reduced by the hardware approach to education.
Silverman (1968) called this type of educational technology ‘Relative technology’. This refers to borrowing and applying technology, machines, and devices in the process of teaching and learning. This educational technology performs a simple service function in education.
Second Educational Technology or Software Approach: The educational technology is called the ‘Software Approach’ of instructional technology. It refers to the application of teaching-learning principles to the direct and deliberately shaping of behavior. Its origin lies in the application of behavioral science to the problems of learning and motivation, whereas, the mechanization of teaching-learning is seen purely as a problem of presentation. The view of educational technology is closely associated with modern aspects of the instructional theory of teacher behavior and principles of programmed learning. It is characterized by task analysis, writing objectives in behavioral terms selection of appropriate teaching strategies, reinforcement for correct responses, and content evaluation.
Silverman (1968) termed this educational technology as ‘Constructive Educational Technology’. In this technology, some constructive work is to be performed. It is the basic educational application dealing with-1. the analysis of instructional problems, 2. the selection or construction of measuring instruments required to evaluate instructional outcomes, and 3. the construction or selection of strategies and tactics to produce the desired educational outcomes. It concentrates on the analysis, selection, and construction of whatever is necessary to meet educational needs. These two meanings of educational technology, the first concerned with teaching aids like teaching machines, and the second with learning aids like programmed instructions are functionally related to each other.
Third Educational Technology or Instructional Designs: This new technology is known by several names. It is essentially a new management approach, influencing management decision-making in business, industry, government military, and education. In turn that has gained reasonable standardization in system analysis. Technology has influenced educational administration and organization to the great extent. It refers to the analysis and development of systems. One assumption is that no comprehensive system development can take place without prior system analysis. The term system includes the utilization of scientific mathematical techniques applied to organizational operations and problems of management as a part of decision-making activities.
During the last few years, educational administration has become sensitive to the potential use of the new system technology in education operations. It has brought to educational management a scientific-quantitative approach for solving educational administrative problems.
The third educational technology is not only the System Analysis Management Technology. But involves three instructional designs:
- Training Psychology
- Cybernetic Principles or Theory of Reinforcement
- Systems Analysis
Educationists categorize the concept of educational technology into two approaches viz the hardware approach and the software approach. The Hardware approach is based on the application of engineering principles for developing electro-mechanical equipment for instructional purposes. Motion pictures, tape recorders, television teaching machines, and computers are called educational hardware. This approach is the result of the impact of scientific and technological development during the present century. The hardware approach mechanizes the process of teaching so that teachers would be able to deal, with more students with less expenditure on educating them. The software approach uses, the principles of psychology for building in the learner a complex repertory of knowledge or modifying his behavior, It originates from the pioneering work of Skinner and other behaviorists. The programs which such a technology produces are often called ‘Software‘. Newspapers, books, magazines, educational games, and flashcards may also form part of the software. The software approach is characterized by task analysis, writing precise objectives, selection of appropriate learning strategies, immediate reinforcement of responses, and constant evaluation.
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Distinguish between Hardware and Software Technology
Distinguish between Hardware and Software Technology