Hardware MBA 1st Year Semester Very Short Questions Answers Study Material Notes: Unit-wise chapter wise notes syllabus Solved case studies For practise Notes Knowledge Boosters To illuminate The Learning
Short Answer Questions
Q.1. What is computer system?
Ans. A computer is a combination of electronic and electromechanical equipments which is capable of solving problems by automatically accepting and storing input data, processing them and produce output results under the direction of a detailed step-by-step instructions of a program.
A system is a group of integrated parts that have the common purpose of achieving some objectives. All of these integrated parts are logically related and controlled in such a way that the system goals are achieved. Unlike any system, the computer system has input and output devices, storage and CPU
which are integrated together. The input and output unit starts working when they receive signals from CPU. Similarly, all the goals cannot be properly achieved till there is no storage. Only CPU is not capable of doing every job. Hence, usefulness of each unit depends on other units and can be achieved only when all units are integrated together to form a system.
Q.2. Give the characteristics of a computer.
Ans. Characteristics of a Computer: There are five major characteristics of a computer, which have made them so powerful and useful:
1. Speed: A computer is a high-speed device that is capable of taking logical decisions, performing arithmetic and non-arithmetic operations at unbelievable speed. This can be understood from the fact that speed of the computer is measured in the terms of milliseconds, microseconds, nanoseconds or even in picoseconds.
1 millisecond = 10-3 seconds
1 microsecond = 10-6-seconds
1 nanosecond = 10-9 seconds
1 picosecond = 10-12 seconds
Usually, a computer can process millions of instructions per second. That’s why its speed is measured in MIPS, i.e. Million Instructions Per Second.
2. Accuracy: We know that computer gives output based on the instructions or programs that we provide to it. If our instructions are not faulty, then everytime we will get the accurate result even for the complex calculations. Only possibility of an error occurring is due to inaccurate instructions or faulty data.
3. Consistency: As computers are machines, they never complain about the continuation of the job. They never get bored in doing the same type of work. Hence, unlike human beings, they are ideal for carrying out repetitive and a large amount of work.
4. Storage Capacity: Computer can store huge amount of data. You can store the contents of thousands of books on a single computer. Once the information is written on the computer, it can be retrieved instantly at any time.
5. Flexibility: It is a general purpose machine. It can be used in education as well as research and development. Whereas it can be used for making business decisions, it can also be used for entertainment or it can be used for making drawings for machines and building using Internet. Information can be sent from one place to another in a fraction of time, hence, it is a very versatile machine that can be used in every field of our life.
Q.3. Differentiate between CPU and control unit.(2005-06, 06-07)
Ans. CPU (Central Processing Unit): CPU is the brain of the computer system. In a computer system, all major calculations and comparisons are made inside the CPU and the CPU is also responsible for activating and controlling the operations of other units of a computer system.
CPU is used to process the entered data, monitor and printer are used to display the processed data to the users. It is the main component inside the computer that is responsible for performing various operations. It includes two components for its functioning-Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) and Control Unit (CU).
Control Unit (CU): The control unit is used to control the activities related to the input and output devices. It controls and guides the interpretation information. The control unit is able to maintain order and direct the operations of the entire system. It does not perform any actual processing on the data, but it acts as a central nervous system for the other components of the computer system. It manages and coordinates the entire computer system. It obtain instructions from the program that is stored in main memory, interprets the instructions and issues signals that cause other units of the system to execute them.
Q.4. Explain various computer input devices.
Or Write short notes on the following input devices:
1. Touch screen,
2. Image scanner.
Ans. 1. Touch Screen: Mostly data is entered in computer with the help of keyboard and me But limited amounts of data can also be entered, via a terminal or a microcomputer that has a touch screen. For it, the user simply touches the screen at the desired locations, marked by labelled boxes, to point out’ choices to the computer.
There are some places where touch screen is very helpful to input the choices by the simple users. Touch screen is mostly used:
(a) At an airport to provide information to arriving passengers related to hotels, restaurants, tourists’ spots, etc. available in the city.
(b) In large museums or zoos, to guide the visitors about the locations of various attractions and
facilities which are available in the museums or zoos.
(c) In the ATM machines, to handle various transactions.
2. Image Scanner: An image scanner (simply known as scanner) is an input device, which translates paper documents into an electronic format, which can be stored in the memory of the computer. These input documents may be typed in the form of text, pictures, graphics or even handwritten material. If the computer in which the scanned document is stored has the image-processing software (such as photoshop), the stored images can be altered and manipulated in interesting ways. Commonly, there are two types of scanners-Flatbed and Hand-held.
(a) Flatbed Scanner: A flatbed scanner is like a photocopy (i.e. photostat) machine, which consists of a box having a glass plate on its top and a lid that covers the glass plate. The document to be scanned is placed upside down on the glass plate. The light source is situated below the glass plate (i.e. inside the scanner) and when activated, it moves horizontally from left to right and vertically from top to bottom to scan the paper. It takes about 20 seconds to scan a paper of size 21 cm x 28 cm.
(b) Hand-held Scanner: A hand-held scanner has a set of light emitting diodes encased in a small case, which can be conveniently held in hand during operation. To scan a document, user switch on the scanner and then drag the scanner slowly (with care) from one end of the paper to its other end. Hand-held scanners are used only in case when the volume and size of documents that are to be scanned is low. These are much cheaper than flatbed scanner.
Limitation of Image Scanner: The scanned document, which contains text, is stored as an image instead of text, so it is not possible to do any word processing of the document in the computer. That means, the computer cannot interpret the stored documentand letters, numbers and special characters.
Q.5. What is meant by OMR?
Ans. Optical Mark Reader (OMR): It is an input device, which interprets pencil marks on the paper. It serves its purpose in evaluating the multiple choice or objective type questions where the correct answer is marked with soft pencil at previous spot in the form of the dot. Then a thin beam of light is flashed upon the paper. The OMR reads the paper keeping into account that the amount of light transmitted through the dot is less as compared to its surrounding areas, which leads to the evaluation of the right answer.
A common application is in examination where multiple choice paper has several boxes. Candidates mark the box corresponding to the correct answer usually with a soft pencil. The forms are an example of preprinted stationery. Some information is already printed on the form (e.g. the question). Your IB registration form is a good example of this.
Q.6. Write the short notes on OCR and bar code reader.
Or What is the main application of Optical Character Reader?(2012-13)
Ans. Optical Character Reader (OCR): It serves its purpose by reading and recognising numbers and alphabets from printed documents with the help of light source and converting them into electrical signals, which are further identified by a computer. First scanner image is transmitted into a computer, The computer reads the image with a special purpose software known as OCR
Data entry through OCR is faster, more accurate and generally more efficient than keystroke data entry. Desktop OCR scanners can read typewriter data into a computer at rates upto 2400 words per minute. Bar Code Reader: On some items, information is written in the coded form using bar codes (light and dark bars) when bar coded items are scanned using OCR, then the bar codes get decoded. Reflected light patterns get converted into electric pulses which is sent to the logic unit. These are then compared with patterns reader that has been programmed to recognise. If data matches, then this data is sent to the computer which displays the related information like price, inventory sale records, etc.
Q.7. What is MICR (Magnetic Ink Character Recognition)? Or What is the main application of MICR?(2012-13)
Or Explain printing devices and voice speech devices.
Ans. Magnetic Ink Character Recognition (MICR): The funny looking numbers at the bottom of the cheque are encoded in magnetic ink for use with MICR reader at the bank. Some banking systems prefer MICR because of the increased reading speed and extra security against forgery as compared to OCR. However, MICR is much more expensive than OCR. When the cheque is received by the bank, the amount has to be encoded in the blank space on the right side before the cheque is processed.
Speech Recognition System/Voice Speech Device: It is one of the latest developments in the field of input devices. In this, data is transferred to computer through voice media. It has become possible for computers to recognise human speech. But this has confined the area of vocabulary to
Place. Indeed a certain set of vocabulary is prestored in computer’s memory. After hearing the with microphone, it tries to identify the words by comparing the same with the al. ind only by translating it into binary system and sending the same to its memory
printing Devices: A print device is a hardware device used for printing, Print device used for printing. Print device resolution measured in Dots Per Inch (DPI). The higher the DPI, the finer the resolution. Devices ar plotters, etc.
(For more detail Refer to Section-C, Q.5.)
Q.8. Discuss about the plotters and COM.
Ans. Plotters: A plotter, like a printer, produces hard-copy output. Plotters are used to produce high-quality colour graphics. There are two main types of lotters-electrostatic and pen plotters. Electrostatic plotters (available in black and white colour) make an image by burning specially prepared paper with a small spark pen. plotters hold a cartridge of several pens of different colours and actually draw on the page, giving a higher quality output. Both types are able to plot on large sheets of paper which can be of fixed size (flatbed plotter) or on a large roll of paper (drum plotter). Plotters are often used in science and engineering applications for drawing building plans, printed circuit boards and machine parts. They are fast and accurate but relatively expensive as compared to printers. They can produce large printouts than standard printers even upto the size of a small room.
COM (Computer Output Microfilm): Storing printed reports require a great deal of space. What can be done to save paper and storage space? Computer Output Microfilm/Microfiche (COM) provides one answer. Microfilm stores images of reports on a roll of film. Microfiche uses four-by-six inch sheets of film to store images. Besides saving storage space COM is less expensive than regular printed output. Producing output on microfilm or microfiche is also faster than simple printed output. COM device can output in excess of 30,000 lines per minute. The major disadvantage of COM is that because of the small size, special readers are required to read the film or fiche.
Q.9. What do you mean by flash memory?
Ans. Flash Memory: Flash memory is a non-volatile computer storage chip that can be electrically erased and re-programmed. It was developed from EEPROM (Electrically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory) and must be erased in fairly large blocks before these can be rewritten with new data. The high density NAND type must also be programmed and read in (smaller) blocks, or pages, while the NOR type allows a single machine word (byte) to be written and/or read independently.
This is different from flash RAM, which needs power to retain data. Regular EEPROM erases data content byte by byte, most flash memory.erases data in whole blocks, making it suitable for use with applications where large amounts of data require frequent updates. Inside the flash chip, data is stored in cells protected by floating gates. Tunnelling electrons change the gate’s electronic charge in a flash clearing the cell of its contents, so it can be rewritten.
Q.10. What do you mean by the generation of computers? Discuss the key features of the current generation of computers. (2006-07)
Ans. Generation of Computers: The computer was not invented by only one person but it was
the outcome of sequence of contributions by many people. Generations are the time periods given for a consistent development of some or the other kind of terminology. Charles Babbage, a British Mathematician was known as the Father of Computer.
Current or Fifth Generation of Computers (After 1981) and its Features: The computers which use VLSI technology are called the fifth generation computers. The computers which are used today belong to fifth generation. Now, laptop, computer are available in market. Today’s computers have RAM and storage devices whose capacity is unlimited: 5GLs works with a knowledge base. These are also known as artificial intelligence language computers. They have potential advantage over human brains. Al is an approach of computer scientist to inculcate the human intelligence in computers. This is an attempt to simulate human problem solving and learning abilities.
Q.11. What is an operating system? Discuss about it. (2005-06, 09-10)
Ans. Operating System: An operating system is system software, which may be viewed as an organised collection of software and utilities consisting of procedures for operating a computer and providing environment for execution of programs.
Different sizes and capacity of computers have their own operating systems. For example, Cray supercomputers use UNICOS and COS, IBM mainframes use MVS and VM and Compaq minicomputers use VAX/VMS-Pen-based computers have their own operating system-Pen Right, Pen Point, Pen DOS and Windows for Pen Computing, enables users to write scribbles and notes on the screen. All these operating systems are not compatible with one another. That is, in general, an operating system written for one kind of hardware will not be able to run on another kind of machine.
Some commonly used operating systems are as follows:
1. CPM: Developed by digital research it is used in 8 bits computers.
2. CPM/80: Also developed by digital research but used in 16 bits computers.
3. MS-DOS (Microsoft Disk Operating System): It is developed by Microsoft for PCs (Personal Computers). Microsoft launched its original version, MS-DOS 1.0 in 1981. It is a text based OS, i.e. user has to remember commands in order to work on it. Before Windows operating system, it was the most widely used OS.
4. PC-DOS: Microsoft licenses a version of DOS to IBM called PC-DOS.
5. Mac-OS: It runs only on Apple Macintosh computers or on Mac clones. It is very easy to use, as Apple designed its hardware and software together from the start. It is widely used in education and desktop publishing.
6. Apple DOS and PRO DOS (Professional DOS): These operating systems are developed by Apple Computers Corporation for their computers known as Apple computers.
7. OS/2: It is designed to run on recent IBM and IBM compatible minicomputers. Like Windows, it has a GUI OS/2 that can also run most DOS, Windows and OS/2 applications simultaneously.
8. Windows Operating System: Presently, it is the most widely used operating system. It lays a Graphical User Interface (GUI) shell around the DOS and extends DOS capabilities. The advantages of GUI is that user has not to remember commands like DOS to work on a computer.
9. UNIX: It is a multi-user operating system. It means that many persons can work at a time on a computer system that has many terminals to work on. It is written in C language. Like DOS it is also text based OS, i.e. the user has to remember commands.
Q.12. What are the important functions of operating system?(2005-06)
Ans. All the operating systems perform the following important functions:
1. OS is a primary interface between a user and a computer. It interprets the user with program instructions to the hardware.
2. It provides coordination services necessary to enable a group of users to share computer system resources efficiently. It also keeps track of the status of each resource such as memory, processor and I/O devices and decides who will have control over computer resources.
3. It starts computer operations automatically when power is turned ON.
4. Loading and scheduling user’s programs.
5. Controlling input and output.
6. Controlling program execution..
7. Managing main memory.
8. Providing security to user’s jobs and files.
9. Manage files and directories on secondary storage devices.
10. Configure hardware.
11. Acts as an internal time clock.
12. Establishes data security and integrity.
Q.13. Discuss the important terms of windows.
Or What is the role of taskbar in windows?(2007-08)
Ans. Important Terms of Windows: These are as follows:
Icon: It is a graphical representation of an element in window. Icons are used to represent all sort of items, including application program, document, when they are not currently opened. To r. the application program or open the document, the left button of the mouse is clicked double on the desired icon.
Cascade: Cascade refers to the overlapped manner of arranging all the open windows on the desktop. One can view the contents of the first window (active window) only. The remaining windows are visible partially.
Tile: Tile is the another way to view the contents of all windows simultaneously. It causes all open windows to be equally sized and lined up in a tile form.
Maximised Window: A window, which uses the whole screen, is called maximised window.
Minimised Window: A window can be sized down to an icon so that it occupies only a small portion of the screen.
Restored Window: A window in the normal size, which is neither maximised nor minimised.
Desktop: The background of screen on which MS-Windows icons and dialog boxes appear is called a desktop. The total visible area on the screen which you get immediately after turning on your computer is called desktop area. The desktop may contain many items like My computer, Network neighbourhood, Recycle bin, etc.
Taskbar: At the lower corner on the taskbar, there is a start button. On clicking the start button, we get a menu of choices. Every open program has a button on the taskbar associated with it. One can switch between programs just by clicking on these buttons. Taskbar also contains quick launch toolbar with buttons that can be used to access Internet Explorer, Outlook Express, etc. It also contains a series of different toolbars.
Start Button: This button is the primary method of accessing all files and programs stored on the computer. It is used to display the START menu, start a program, open a document, change settings and shut down the computer.
Drives: Drives are used to store data. Almost all computers come with atleast two drives a hard drive (which is used to store large volumes of data) and a floppy drive (which stores smaller volumes of data that can be easily transported from one computer to another). The hard drive is typically designated as the C:\drive and the floppy drive is typically designated as the A:\drive. If you have an additional floppy drive, it is typically designated the B:\drive. If your hard drive is partitioned or if you have additional drives, the letters D:\, E:\, F:\ and so on are assigned.
Folders: Folders are used to organise the data stored on your drives. The files that make up a program are stored together in their own set of folders. If you want to organise the files, you create in folders. If you want to store files of same kind, you store them in a single folder.
Most Recently Used Document List: As you work, Windows 98 tracks the last 15 files you used. It lists these files on the most recently used document list. To view the most recently used document list.
1. Click on start.
2. Highlight documents, the most recently used documents will display.
To open a file listed on the most recently used document list, click on the file name.
Run Command: To select this command, click the start button and select.
Run: A dialog box will appear. Use this dialog box to launch programs by typing in the command line for the program. This command can be used to start program that may not appear on any shortcut or in any other program folder.
Q.14. Write the role of the following:
1. My Computer,
2. Control Panel
3. Recycle Bin,
4. My Document,
5. Network Neighbourhood,
6. My Briefcase.
ANS. 1. My Computer: When you double click this icon, you get a window that contains icon for all drives and a folder for control panel, a printer folder and folders used in creating dial-up connections. It is one of the several ways to access information about the drives and printer,
4. Control Panel: Inside the ‘My Computer folder, contains several applications and accessories wal you need to configure your computer. Similarly, printers folder contains an object for each of the Printers attached to your computer. When you add or delete printers, this folder is used.
by opening this folder, you can access an icon for each printer. When you double click on a printer icon, you can set printer options and configure your printer. The third important folder inside the My Computer folder is Dial-up Networking. This folder contains the resource that you need to use windows Remote Access Service (RAS) feature. RAS is used to connect your computer to other computers or computer network from remote locations.
3. Recycle Bin: It contains all deleted files and folders whenever you delete a file. It is not deleted permanently. This file is sent to recycle bin. From recycle bin, the deleted file can be retrieved after some days or even some weeks. When you want to remove the file permanently, click the empty recycle bin option.
Files that are deleted using DOS programs or any program that is not part of Windows are not sent to recycle bin.
If you want to undelete or restore a deleted file to its original file, just open the recycle bin and select the file(s) to be restored. After this, select the restore from the file menu or press the right button of the mouse and select the restore from there. This will undelete the deleted file(s).
4. My Document: It is the default folder that contains files (usually documents) saved by various applications like notepad, wordpad, paint brush, etc. by the user.
5. Network Neighbourhood: You can share files or folders from other computers which are connected to your computer.
6. My Briefcase: Windows include a special utility that enables you to track different versions of files when you are moving back and forth from one computer to another, such as from your notebook or home computer.
To use a briefcase, perform the following steps:
(a) Assume that you planned to take a couple of word documents from the office to work on your home PC then create a briefcase and copy these files into the briefcase.
(b) Copy the briefcase onto a floppy to transport to the home computer.
(c) Once on the home computer, start the application by double clicking the file in the briefcase.
(d) When you have done working on the documents, save them in the briefcase.
(e) Then back at the office, insert the floppy in the computer and select the ‘Update all’ command
from the briefcase menu. This will update all the office documents with the documents that you have updated at home.
Q.15. What Is buffer? What is the role of memory buffer and input/output buffers in a computer. (2005-06, 06-07)
Ans. Buffer: It is a software application designed to manage accounts in social networks, by roviding the means for a user to schedule posts to Twitter & Facebook Buffer is also the name of the company that creates this software.
Memory Buffer: Buffer memory is used to hold the process data for a short time temporarily. Processed data and result is same in buffer before the execution takes place.
Input/Output Buffers: Each and every input-output devices have their own buffer memory in which that data is stored which is to be displayed or has to be scanned by the user. In output devices, the information which is to be displayed, has to be stored in the buffer memory and then it is displayed in the same way as in input devices which receive instructions by the user. All the instructions which are stored in buffer are then executed one by one.
Q.16. What is anl/O processor? Also differentiate between the single user and multi-user environments.(2006-07)
Or Distinguish between single user and multi-user operating systems.(2007-08)
Ans. I/O Processor: A processor is a component which executes instruction and generate appropriate signals to all devices for performing the related action or task.
Input/output processor is the processor which executes input/output instructions and then generate related time signal.
Single User Environment: Single user systems allow only one user to have access to computer at a time. These are mainly used on the personal computers. An example of such operating system is MSDOS or Microsoft Disk Operating System. DOS is the operating system that allows only one person to work on the computer. That person can work only with one program or software at a time.
Multi-User Environment: Many different users can share the same machine in the multi-user mode. The computer operating systems that can manage many users at a time are required in this environment. These OS allow many users to access to a computer system through many terminals. Some multi-user systems are:
1. Time sharing system.
2. Network operating system.
3. Distributed operating system.
Q.17. What type of interface is provided by windows operating system? How it differs with the previously used interface (command line interface) for computers?(2006-07)
Or Which type of interface MS-DOS and Microsoft windows provides to the user? (2015-16)
Or Give comparison between graphical user interface and command line interface.
Ans. Windows operating system or Microsoft windows provides the graphical user interface. This system presents commands in graphical form. Usually a command is given to the computer by clicking with mouse on the icon. GUI provides menus, buttons and other graphical objects to the user to perform different tasks.
GUI is different from CLI. A CLI provides a command prompt on the computer screen. The commands are given to the computer by typing on the keyboard. The commands are typed in the predefined format. The users have to memorise the commands and also the rules of writing these commands. It is not an easy interface. MS-DOS provides this interface to the user.
Comparison between GUI and CLI
|S.No.||Basis of difference||Graphical user interface||Command line interface|
|1.||Execution of command||Symbols, pictures and pointing commands are used to execute commands.||Set of characters and words and used to execute the commands.|
|2.||Use of command||There is no need to remember the commands. A small practice enables you to use the commands.||The syntax and various options have to be remembered by the users to work perfectly.|
|3.||Application||General menu structures and commands are used for all the applications.||Differentb applications have their own set of commands.|
|4.||Execution time||Number of applications can be opened and executed in different windows at the same time.||Only one application runs ast a time.|
|5.||Keyboard use||Minimum use of keyboard.||Maximum use of keyboard.|
|6.||Use of mouse||Mouse is extensively used.||Mouse is used only in some applications.|
|7.||User friendly interface||Easy to operate because of its user friendly graphical interface.||It does not have user friendly interface.|
Q.18. Differentiate between windows XP and windows 7 operating systems.(2012-13.)
Ans. Difference between windows XP and windows 7 OS
|S.No.||Basis of difference||Windows XP OS||Windows 7 OS|
|1.||Aero property||Windows XP does not hae Aero property.||Windows 7 retains the Windows Aero user interface. Aero makes manageing desktop as a visual experience.|
|2.||Capacity of OS||It is a 32-bits OS.||It has full 64-bits support.|
|3.||Operation||It operates by seyboard and mouse||There is no need of keyboard or mouse if computer is touch screen.|
|4.||User account control||User account control is not available.||It provides the features of user account control.|
|5.||Support of interface||Windows XP supports drop down menu and toolbar.||It provides the ribbon interface over the more familiar drop down menu and toolbar approach to using programs.|
Q.19. Explain the elements o GUI based operating system.
Ans. The elements of GUI based operating system are:
- Desktop: It is the first screen on the monitor that shows the icons and the taskbar containing start button, the currently open programs, clock and calendar.
- Window: An open application in a GUI opens in the form of a window.
- Menu: it displays a lis of command options out of which one can be selected as desired.
- Sub-menu: An arrow after any menu command represens the presence of another menu called sub-menu.
- Icons: The graphical representations of the applications, files and folders when clicked immediately open up a window called icons.
- Dialog Box: Dialog box is a form presented to the user to fill in the required information.
- Radio Button: It indicates the ON/OFF status of an option and is indicated by a dot enclosed by a circle.
- Check Box Button: When the box is checked, it implies that it is selected and is indicated by a tick enclosed in a square.
- Command Button: Buttons like cancel, OK, save which when clicked perform an action immediately are called command buttons.
- List Box: It has a down arrow, which when clicked presents a menu showing a list of items and the user can select one.
- Slider: It can be moved in both the directions by pressing and dragging the moves over it. It increases and decreases the values.
- Taskbar: It is a bar commonly located at the button of windows operating system that displays the programs that are currently running. Thus bar also displays the time and the start button.