(d) Orientation and Placement: Once screening takes place, the appointed candidates are made miliar to the work units and work environment through the orientation programmes. Placement takes place by putting right man on the right job.
(e) Training and Development: Training is a part of incentives given to the worke Land grow them within the concern. Training is generally given according to the nature of activities and scope of expansion in it. raining is a part of incentives given to the workers in order to develop of expansion in it. Along with it, the workers are developed by providing them cern. Training is generally given according to the nature of activities and scope nowledge of their functional areas. Development also includes giving them key and are developed by providing them extra benefits of indepth Lar examination in order to analyse their performances.
(f) Remuneration: It is a kind of compensation provided monetarily to the employees performances. This is given according to the nature of iob-skilled or unskilled, physical or mental, etc. Remuneration forms an important monetary incentive for the employees.
(g) Performance Evaluation: In order to keep a track or record of the behaviour, attitudes as well as opinions of the workers towards their jobs. For this regular assessment is done to evaluate an different work units in a concern. It is basically concerning to know the development cycle and growth patterns of the employees in a concern.
(h) Promotion and Transfer: Promotion is said to be a non-monetary incentive in which the workers shifted from a higher job demanding bigger responsibilities as well as shifting the workers and transferring them to different work units and branches of the same organisation.
3. Explain the steps involved in decision-making process with examples. Also explain in detail any two decision-making tools.
Ans. Refer to Unit-II, Sec-B, Q.21 and Sec-C, Q.6.
Two Decision-Making Tools
Following are the two decision-making tools:
(a) Brainstorming: It is a combination of group problem-solving and discussions. It works on the belief that the more the number of ideas, greater the possibility of arriving at a solution to the problem that is acceptable to all. It starts with the group generating ideas which are then analysed, with action points based on the discussions.
For instance, if one has received a new e-learning project and is thinking of a strategy to implement in the course he can follow this technique. He has to gather a group of instructional designers in a conference and let them first analyse the inputs. After that, he can collect ideas from each of them and take the final decision.
(b) Delphi Method: In this method of deci individuelle brainstorm and submit their ideas ‘anonymously. Other team members do not know the owner lates them among others for modifying or of the ideas. The facilitator then collects all the inputs and circulates them among others for me erson can improving them. This process continues until a final decision is made. In the above example, the whom the have a facilitator who collects strategies and passes them onto the others without revealing Es diu Chouses we best one. Strategy belongs. Later, the facilitator collects the improvised strategies and chooses the best one
Or what is planning? What are its objectives? Explain the steps of planning process and discuss its importance for business organisations in India.
Ans. Refer to Unit-II, Sec-B, Q.2,7,8,9.
4.Discuss the importance of control in organisations. What are different types of organisatie control? Explain the steps involved in controlling process.
Ans. Refer to Unit-IV, Sec-B, Q.13, 15 and Sec-C, Q.3.
Or What is Directing? Why is it needed? Explain the process of directing by explaining the stene
Ans. Refer to Unit-IV, Sec-B, Q.1, 3.
5.Write a note on the contemporary issues and international perspectives of management How they are important to be studied by managers to manage globally?
Ans. Refer to Unit-V, Sec-C, Q.1.
International perspectives of Management
The challenges associated with international business are:
- Legal Issues: On doing trade in another country, one has to be faimiliar with that country’s laws. On importing products from other countries, he may also have to play additional taxes and import duties. Without proper legal advice fines and penalties may be subjected with.
- Political Problems: Many people are strongly opposed to outsourcing, globalization and other international business practices. Some of the customer base is lost on doing trading in other countries.
All these issues are important to be studied by managers to manage globally. Highly effective managers need to see things based on how their company functions in the big picture of the new global economy.
- With the use of Internet as a means of reaching customers one can compete on a global scale.
- Outsourcing is when companies do not do all of the work themselves but hire another company to complete some part of the work based on cheaper labour or materials originate in the world and seek to take advantage of cost savings by purchasing them right from the source.
Or what is TQM? What steps are involved in its implementation in organizations? Is it same as 5S? Explain with examples.
Ans. Refer to Unit-V, Sec-B, Q.7. and Sec-C, Q.4.
TQM is not almost same as 5S. Actually, 5S is the starting point of a TOM programme. The 5S practice is helpful as it helps everyone in the organization to live a better life. It is and important step towards process improvement. 5S provides and essential total quality environment which is and important base for implementing TQM Successfully.
The 5S practice is a technique used to establish andmaintain quality environment in and organization. The name stands for five Japanese words: Seiri, Seiton, Seiso, Seiketsu and shitsuke. The English equiralents, their meanings and typical examples are shown in the folloing table:
|Seiri||Structurise||Organization||30-second retrieval of document|
|Seiton||Systemize||Neatness||Throw away rubbish or return to store|
|Seiso||Sanitise||Cleaning||Individual cleaning responsibility|
|Seiketsu||Standardize||Standardization||Transparency of storage|
|Shitsuke||Self-discipline||Discipline||Do 5S daily|
The technique has been practiced in Japanese for a long time. Most Japanese 5S practitioners consider the 5S useful not just for improving their physical environment but for improving their thinking processes as well. Apparently thef5s can help in all walks of life. Many of he everyday problems could be solved through adoption of this practice.