5. Concreteness: Concreteness of message is an essential requirement of effective communication It means being specific, definite and vivid rather than vague and general. In oral communication, we can’t draw tables, diagrams, or graphs to make our statements vivid but we can choose precise words to convey the correct message and support it by relevant facts and figures. If the message is specific, there would be increased likelihood that the message is interpreted by the receiver as intended by the sender.
6. Consideration: Consideration means preparing the message with the receiver in mind. In order to communicate effectively, the sender should think and look from the receiver’s angle. He should adopt a human approach and understand the emotions and sentiments of the receiver. He should understand and focus on the needs of the receiver. The socio-psychological background of the receiver must be understood. The golden rule, ‘First understand then be understood’ should be followed
7. Courtesy: Courtesy stems from a sincereness to attitude. It is not merely politeness with mechanical, insertions of ‘Please’ and ‘Thank you, although applying socially accepted manners is a form of courtesy. Rather, it is politeness that grows out of respect and concern for others. In business discussions, you should say things with force and assertiveness without being rude. It is necessary that you respect the other person by listening to him patiently.
Thus, among the 7Cs of effective communication, complete communication develops and enhances reputation of an organisation. Conciseness underlines and highlights the main message as it avoids using excessive and needless words. Consideration emphasise with the audience and exhibit in the dience clarity that makes understanding easier and hence enhances the meaning of message: Concreteness makes use of the words that are clear and that build there he terms showing respect for the receiver or message and correctness checks for the precision and that build the reputation. Courtesy makes use accurateness of facts and figures used in the message.
Q.7. Diferentiate between the communication within the organisation and communication of the anisation with outer world. Discuss the different forms of these communications. (2009-10)
Ans. Communication within the Organisation: This type of communication carries innumerable kinds of messages which are difficult to be found out but are easy to transmit among the members. These regards to how to transmit, who communicates to whom or what kinds of relationships are developed within the organisation.
The well known forms of this type of communication are formal communication and informal communication. Formal communication is a communication through the chain of command. It is a means of communication that is normally controlled by managers or people occupying similar positions in an organisation and is associated with formal organisational structure. This network is prescribed and controlled by manager and supervisors in the organisation. It is a primary network of communication where messages of various types flow up and down in the hierarchy in the form of reports, suggestions, grievances, order, instructions, etc.
It offers the following advantages:
1. It allows flow of information in an orderly and authentic manner as it takes place along the officially prescribed routes.
2. It covers all subsystems of an organisation.
3. There is a tendency of filtering information in formal channels of communication.
4. It satisfies the people occupying managerial positions and helps them in exercising control over subordinates. Informal communication stretches throughout the organisation in all directions irrespective of the authority levels. Grapevine is an informal channel of business organisation. It represents the unofficial channels of communication which are created and controlled by people themselves rather than by the management.
This communication offers the following advantages:
1. It carries information rapidly.
2. The managers get to know the reactions of their subordinates on their policies.
3. It creates a sense of unity among the employees who share and discuss their views with each other.
4. It serves as an emotional supportive value.
5. It is a supplement in those cases where formal communication does not work.
Communication of Organisation with Outer World: Communication is an on-going process. It does not take place only with people within the organization but people outside the organization as well. If a company has to survive in the competitive environment it has to adopt this form of communication. The image of the company is contingent upon the relationship that it maintains with people outside. This communication can take on a number of forms:
1. Advertising, 2. Media interaction, 3. Public relation,
4. Presentations, 5. Negotiation, 6. Mails, telegrams and letters.
This communication can be oral or written. The first three forms of communication-advertising, media interaction, and public relation fall mainly in the domain of corporate communication.
Establishing good relations, negotiating or conducting a deal with interacting clients, issuing enders soliciting proposals, sending letters are all parts of such type of communication. This is a Different task as the interaction takes place and varies between a host of people belonging to different disciplines, personalities, and expectations.
• While communicating at the internal level an individual can on a few occasion be slightly relaxed ut the same would not hold true if he is communicating at the external level.
Q.8. Discuss In brief the meaning of vertical communication. Describe downward communication with its advantages and disadvantages.
Ans. Meaning of Vertical Communication: Vertical communication may move both downward as well as upward. So, on the basis of the flow of information, the communication process may be classified as follows:
1. Downward communication. 2. Upward communication.
Fig. Vertical communication i.e. downward and upward.
1. Downward Communication: It represents the flow of information from the top level to the lower levels of the organization. In the below figure, communication from the managing director to the operating employees represents downward flow. The purpose of downward communication is to communicate policies, procedures, programs, and objectives and to issue orders and instructions to the subordinates.
Downward communication can take place through verbal or written orders and instructions notices, circulars, letters, memos, posters, periodicals, publications, group meetings, etc.
The basic objectives of downward communication are as under:
(a) To give instructions about what to do and how to do.
(b) To explain organizational policies, programs, and procedures.
(c) To know how effectively a person is performing his job.
(d) To motivate employees to improve their performance.
(e) To train subordinates in performing the jobs.
Advantages/Merits of Downward Communication
The advantages of downward communication are as follows:
1. Missions and Goals: It informs the employees about the organisation’s missions and goals, and how they should contribute their best to accomplish these goals.
2. Plans and Policies: It provides information to the employees regarding organizational pia and policies.
3. Duty and Authority: It facilitates the employees about knowing what is expected of them the extent of their authority.
4. Job Satisfaction: It increases employees job satisfaction by communicating them about better performance.
Disadvantages/Demerits of Downward Communication
Downward communication has the following disadvantages:
1. Distortion: In big-sized organisations, information flows through a number of layers. It is possible sometimes that the message is sent to the lowest level of organisational hierarchy.
2. Incomplete Information: Sometimes, managers withhold a part of information with them and transmit incomplete information so that subordinates continue to remain dependent upon them for requisite information.
3. Time Consuming: As the organisational hierarchy has too many levels, it takes too long for information to reach the person concerned. Sometimes, the information reaches after the desired action has already been taken.
4. Filteration of Information: Oral information often gets lost in transit. Messages are encoded and decoded according to people’s perception. Researches have shown that in some cases, information upto 80% gets lost on the way.