Q.9. State barriers in communication. (2007-08, 08-09, 11-12)
Or Bring out the important barriers to the smooth and free flow of communication. What do you suggest to remove these barriers? (2006-07,12-13)
Or Point out the various barriers to effective communication. Also suggest the ways and means to ensure the free flow of communication from both the ways. (2013-14)
Or With the help of suitable examples, explain what are various barriers to communication. As a manager what measures you would use to overcome them? (2015-16)
Ans. The term ‘Barrier’ means ‘Hurdle’, ‘Hindrance’ or ‘Obstacle’. Thus, barriers to communication imply hurdles or obstacles on the way of transmission of message from the sender to the receiver. In practice, there exist several barriers in communication which render it ineffective.
Types of Barriers: Various kinds of barriers to communication may be classified as under:
1. Physical and Mechanical Barriers: The physical and mechanical barriers may be caused by noise, distance, time and information overload.
(a) Physical Barriers: Outdated machines and equipment may produce excessive noise leading to physical barriers in communication. Background noise, too cold or too hot or poor lighting are also included.
(b) Noise: Communication does not occur in totally noise-free environment. Noise, though of varying degree, disturbs or interferes with communication. Due to higher level of noise in telephones sometime irrelevant information may be screened out and sometimes relevant information may be left out. Adverse weather conditions and faulty telecommunication systems are other most common barriers.
(c) Distance: Long distances between the senders and receivers can also obstruct effective communication. If sender and receiver are separated by geographical distances, telecommunication is most often resorted to disturbance in telephonic connection and can result
in mis-communication or incomplete communication.
(d) Time: Time refers to the reaching of the message. If an important message reaches late, it is sure to affect communication. For instance, factories have shift systems. Person working in
different shifts fail to communicate due to time gap.
(e) Information Overload: It refers to excessive transmission of information. Much more information than what the receiver can process is transmitted to him. The receiver cannot understand, digest, analyse and act upon information overload that is beyond his mental capacity.
2. Language or Semantic Barriers: Language is a medium of carrying all information and ideas. eople from different backgrounds speak different kinds of languages. A speech given in English may ot be understood to others.
The most common types of semantic barriers are as follows:
(a) Unclear Message: Lack of clarity and precision in a message makes it badly expressed, such as inadequate vocabulary, bad organisation of ideas, awkward sentence structure, etc.
(b) Faulty Translation: Every manager receives various types of communications from superiors, peers and subordinates into language suitable to each. Hence, if the message is not translated properly, then it may lead to a problem.
(c) Specialist’s Language: It is often found that technical, personnel or special groups tend to development a special and technical language of their own. This increases their isolation from others and builds a communication barrier.
(d) Unclarified Assumptions: There are certain uncommunicated assumptions which underlie practically all messages. Though a message appears to be specific, its underlying assumptions may not be clear to the receiver.
3. Socio-psychological Barriers: The most common types of socio-psychological barriers are as follows: (a) Differences in Perception: Perceptual barriers may arise due to differences between individuals in the way they perceive, organise and understand their environment.
(b) Differences in Attitudes: People differ with regard to attitudes and opinions which often interfere with communication.
(c) Emotions: How the receiver feels at the time of receipt of information influences effectively how he interprets the information.
(d) Inattention: If people do not pay the required degree of attention to listeningand understanding
the messages they are supposed to receiver, communication will lose its purpose.
(e) Cultural Differences: Cultural differences are faced when managers deal with people of different cultures. Culture refers to values, belief, norms, attitudes and perceptions of people.
4. Organisational Barriers: The most common types of organisational barriers are as follows:
(a) Status Relationship: Organisation structure creates a number of status levels among the members of organisations. There is a difference in the status level of the chief executive and director-production of a company. This difference becomes apparent when one communicates with another.
(b) One-way Flow: Effective communication is a two-way street, i.e. flow of feedback is very necessary but if there is no feedback, it would be a barrier.
(c) Rules and Regulations: Organisational rules and regulations affect the flow of communication by prescribing the subject-matter to be communicated and also the channel through which these are to be communicated.
5. Personal Barriers: The most common types of personal barriers are as follows:
(a) Attitude of Superiors: The attitudes of superiors towards communication in general or in any particular direction affect the flow of message in different directions.
(b) Lack of Confidence in Subordinates: Superiors generally perceive, correct or otherwise, show that their subordinates are less competent and capable, they are not able to advise superiors or they may not have some information coming downwards.
(c) Lack of Time: ‘No time’, ‘Lack of time’ are the terms frequently used by the superiors. They do not share considerable time to talk to their subordinates. They feel, whether real or not, that they are overburdened with work.
Some measures to remove communication barriers as a manager are:
2. Developing Proper Interpersonal Relation: Communication helps to develop proper relations different people working in the organisation. The subordinates should be free and frank to transmit complete and correct information to the former. Superior must appreciate useful criticism and beneficial must develop a mutual trust and confidence..
3. Protective Listening: Superior must develop the habit of patient listening, they should be quick to evaluate the they should be quick to evaluate the information all levels in order to remove before understanding it. In protective listening, the listener tries to understand the view of communicator without prejudging, approving or disapproving what he says.
4. Using Proper Language: The communication may be clear and effective, it must be expressed in a language and transmitted in a way that can be easily comprehended by receivel.
5. Feedback: Feedback is very important in improving comm
ack is very important in improving communication. The simplest way to ensure on has resulted in mutual understanding is to observe behaviour of subordinates and notice how far his actions confirm to requirements of the message.
Q.10. Clearly elucidate the meaning and role of the terms-downward communication and horizontal communication, wrong assumption and semantic barrier. (2014-15)
Ans. Downward Communication: Refer to Section-C, Q.8.
Horizontal Communication: Refer to Section-B, Q.4.
Wrong Assumptions and Semantic Barriers: The obstructions that come in the process of encoding or decoding of messages is termed as semantic barrier. These may be different languages, wrong assumptions, words, pictures, actions or poor vocabulary.
Employees in organisation have no common language. Even competent translators don’t succeed in conveying the exact meaning of different words of different languages. Words and symbols used also have several meanings depending upon the context in which they are used. Same words may have different meanings. The receiver may misinterpret them unless the context of words and symbols used is known. Poor vocabulary is an important semantic barrier that hinders the communicator to convey written or verbal message in right sense. The communicator should use the clear and precise meaning of the used words and their appropriate replacement if needed. Thus, unclear messages, faults in translations, invalid or unclarified assumptions are the semantic barriers in case of communication.
Wrong assumption is an important semantic barrier in proper flow of message or in communication. Unclarified or wrong assumptions underlie practically all messages. Though a message appears to be specific, its underlying assumptions may or may not be clear to the receiver. Thus, wrong assumptions and semantic barriers follow the same meaning.
Q.11. Discuss the importance and role of communication in modern business rganisations. What are the unique advantages of the written communication in business? (2006-07, 14-15)
Or How does the communication plays a role in making an organisation effective? (2009-10)
Ans. Importance and Role of Communication in Organisation Communication has a vital role in modern business organisations or making it effective.
1. Effectiveness: Communication is very effective in business and receiver of this message can use it authentically and with complete truth.
2. Accountability and Compactness: In case of communication, it is quite easy to fix the accountability and responsibility and sender of the message cannot escape from it.
3. Correctness and Completeness: Written message is very clear in its meaning. It gives correct Information to the receiver. There is hardly any room for misunderstanding and mis-interpretation.
4. Written Proof: Written communication is a proof in itself. It can be used for future references.
5. Saving of Time and Cost: If a message is to be conveyed to different people at different places, written communication is the best choice. 20 Written 98x In such case, it is most economical and time saving.
6. No Need for Personal Contact: In case of written creative activity that requires communication, there is no need of personal contact between contact between sender and receiver of message.
7. Essential in Some Condition: When message is to be product. conveyed to many people at different places, then communication play an important role for sender and receiver both.
Advantages of Written Communication in Business
The various advantages of written communication in business are:
1. It is very difficult to destroy or change the contents of the written message or the message in
written form can’t be distorted.
2. Written communication is a cheaper means of communication when the two persons or parties communicating are situated in distant places.
3. Written messages are more carefully formulated as compared to oral communication. So, they are more clear and specific and hence, one has to think carefully before writing anything.
4. Written communication is also used to elaborately discuss about oral communication and to keep its record. Written communication serves as a reliable record for reference in the future and can also be used in future or legal proceedings.