MBA 1st Year Introduction Short Question Answers Study Notes Study Material Notes Solved case studies for practice Notes unit wise division of the content chapter wise notes.
Short Answer Questions
Q.1. Discuss the characteristics of communication.
Ans. Characteristics of Communication: The characteristics of communication are as follows:
- Two-way Process: Communication is possible only when there are at least two persons – On sender and the other receiver.
- Information Sharing and Understanding: Communication involves both transfer of information as well as of the understanding between two or more personal .this means that communication does not take place simply because the information has been transferred or conveyed to the concerned person.
- Verbal and Non-verbal: Communication is not restricted to the transfer of information and understanding through words alone. A manager can communicate through symbols, gestures, and actions which are non-verbal in nature.
- Circular Flow: The flow of communication is circular, that is the process of communication starts when the sender transmits a message to the receiver and the receiver sends the feedback to the sender.
- Goal-Oriented: Communication is goal-oriented. The end result of communication is understanding between the sender and the receiver of information.
- Continuous Process: Exchange of Ideas and opinions among persons is an ongoing process in business and non-business organizations.
- Pervasive Activity: Communication is a pervasive activity. It takes place at all levels and in all functional areas of management.
Q.2. What do you mean by grapevine? What are the features of grapevine?
Or what is a grapevine? Explain its importance in business communication.
Ans. Meanning of Grapevine: Refer to Section-A, Q.3. (2013-14-15)
Features of Grapevine: Grapevine has the following features:
wledge B 1. It transmits information in every direction throughout the organisation laterally and diagonally. The grapevine thus, can even contact those organisational units that may is well known as a source have simply indirect formal relationships.
2. Grapevine, being unrestricted by formal policies and
procedures, transmits information rapidly. In it, the chain of command need not be followed Once a message enters the grapevine, it moves almost instantaneously to any point in the organisation.
3. Grapevine is selective with regard to the person who receives the information. Some people are tuned into it and others are not. It is possible that some managers are even aware of the existence of the grapevine in the organisation.
4. Grapevine extends beyond the formal hierarchy system of an organisation. It can occur off the job. Workers at a party may pass on or receive information about the organisation.
5. Grapevine generally occurs orally. It arises out of social interactions among people.
6. Grapevine is based on people rather than task.
7. Grapevine does not follow a fixed pattern as in the case with formal communication.
8. A manager cannot eliminate the grapevine.
Importance of Grapevine
Grapevine holds its own importance in every organisation both from the point of view of the workers and the management. This confirms the policies, decisions and other matters initiated at the level of management. People feel psychologically satisfied with grapevine and shows the cohesion in the organisation. Grapevine can only be effective, when the organisation is working on the open door policy. Managers should organise meetings with workers to put a stop on rumours. This channel of communication can be useful for the business if it is used with core and proper checks.
Q.3. What are the various types of grapevine?
Ans. The various types of grapevine are as follows:
1. Single Strand Network: In this type of grapevine, an individual communicates with another individual through the intervening persons.
2. Gossip Chain: In gossip chain, the individual communicates with everyone non-selectively.
3. Probability Chain: In probability chain, the individual communicates randomly with others according to the law of probability.
4. Cluster Chain: In cluster chain, the individual communicates with only those individuals whom he trusts. Out of these informal networks, the cluster chain is most popular:
Q.4. Illustrate the concept of horizontal communication. Or Explain diagrammatically the horizontal pattern of communication in a business enterprise. (2015-16)
Ans. Horizontal communication refers to the transmission of information among persons of the same level and status as shown in the given figure.
Horizontal or lateral communication. Horizontal communication generally takes place among departmental heads who are responsible for different functional areas of the business. It is also known as lateral or sideward communication. The main purpose of sideward communication is to secure coordination among various departments.
Horizontal communication can take place between 1. members of a particular work group, 2. members of different work groups, 3. members of different departments operating at the same level, and 4. members of line and staff.
Horizontal communication can be both oral and written. Oral communication takes place amongst people of the same level when they meet during lunch break or after office hours, discuss issues in meetings and takes on conferences over telephones. Written communication takes place through letters, memos, report, etc.
Q.5. Differentiate between horizontal and vertical communication. (2013-14)
Ans. Horizontal Communication: Horizontal communication refers to the communication in which information flows between people holding same rank and status. This communication enjoys greater degree of informality and is mostly done through oral media. The purpose of this communication is to coordinate the activities of various departments and divisions of the organisation. Message of this communication are usually free from distortion.
Vertical Communication: Vertical communication refers to the communication where information flows from superior to subordinates and vice-versa. This communication is more formal than horizontal communication and is mostly done through written media. The purpose of vertical communication is to provide necessary orders, instructions and directives to the subordinates in downward direction, and receiving suggestion, opinion and feedback from the ordinates in the upward direction. Message the vertical communication may suffer from distortion.
Q.6. What do you mean by encoding and decoding of messages? Give an example.
Or Explain the Berlo’s model of communication. (2014-15)
Ans. Encoding and Decoding of Messages: Encoding and decoding are the main stages communication process which can be defined as follows:
Encoding: Translation of an idea into a message appropriate for transmission by the sour called encoding. While encoding a message, one need to consider what contents to include, how receiver will interpret it and how it may affect one’s relationship.
Decoding: When the message, symbols, etc. is converted into a certain meaning, it is known as decoding. Decoding is done by the receiver. The message should be clearly worded so that it is easily understood by the receiver.
Stages of Berlo’s Model
In Berlo’s model of communication, there are six stages, viz source, encoding, channel, decoding, receiver, feedback.
In the first stage, the idea is originated in the mind of the sender then in the second stage, the idea is converted into a message which was known as encoding; in the third stage, the selection of the channel through which a message has to be sent to a receiver, then in the fourth stage, the receiver of the message decodes or converts it into a message form so that it may be clearly understood; then the receiver receives the message in the fifth stage and thereafter in the end the receiver gives the response of the message in the form of feedback.
The best example of encoding and decoding of messages can be seen in case of TV, where display of pictures or text is done by decoding of messages.