MBA 1st Year Network And Internet Long Questions Answers Study Notes Notes study Material Sample papers 3 mock papers for self assessment Unit Wise Division of the Content.
LONG ANSWER QUESTIONS
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Q.1. Discuss about various types of computer networks.
Or Differentiate between LAN and WAN.
(2005-08, 06-07, 07.08, 12-13, 13-14
Or Differentiate among LAN, MAN and WAN and also describe their applications in today’s online world.
Ans. Types of Computer Networks: There may be different types of network of computer depending upon the location where the connected computers are placed. For example, a small number of PCs may be spread over one room or one floor, or a few hundred of different types of computer may spread over large distances. So, on the basis of the geographical location of these computers, the networks may be classified into:
1. Local Area Network (LAN): A LAN is a group of computers which are placed in a single room or a building sprawling over several acres. These are typically personal to an organisation. LAN allows personal computer to share information as well as resources, such as printers and hard disks. PCs in a LAN are directly connected through cables. All important and updated information are stored on a hard disk (placed in a server) which is available to all users (connected to a network) whenever they need it. The network contains a server which could be a fast access PC or any other microcomputer, which provides services, such as access to its file store, printers, etc. to the other computers connected to the network. LAN uses a variety of communication media, such as ordinary telephone wiring, coaxial cable or even wireless radio system to interconnect microcomputer workstations and computer peripherals. To communicate over the network, each PC usually has a circuit board called a Network Interface Card (NIC). In LANs, the transmission rates are usually 1 to 10 Mbps. Today however, speeds are increasing and can reach 100 Mbps with gigabyte system in development.
The main advantages of LAN is to enable organizations, to realise large productivity gains and cost savings through the inherent efficiencies of sources sharing.
2. Wide Area Network (WAN): WAN differs from LAN because of their wider geographical range. These spread across countries and also across continents. It can include a large number of computers which are spread over a large distance. It could also include a group of LANs spread over several locations. They use microwaves and satellites as the primary media to reach people over long distances connecting different types of computers like micro, mini and mainframe in the process. Huge organisations having their installations spread across the world, link all their computers for faster and efficient exchange of information. For example, a WAN could be a company with offices in two different cities whose LANs share information over a telephone line.
3. Metropolitan Area Network (MAN): Refer to Section-A, Q.22.
Difference between LAN and WAN
|S.No.||Basic of difference||Local area network||Wide area network|
|1.||Converage area||It covers a diameter of not more than a few kilometers.||It spans over entire countries.|
|2.||Data rate||It has a total data rae of atleast 10a to 100 Mbps.||It has a data rate of more than 1 Mbps.|
|3.`||Ownership||There is a complete ownership by a single organization.||It is owned by multiple organization.|
|4.||Error rate||It has very low error rates.||It has comparatively higher error rates.|
|5.||Standard used||It uses IEEE 802 standard.||It uses ITU standard.|
|6.||Topology used||It favours ring, bus topologies.||It has several topologies – star, ring, mesh.|
2. Explain the communication channels.
Or What are communication channels In networking? Use two transmission media. Describe any such features of each that the other does not have.(2011-12) Or Differentiate between twisted pair wire and fiber optic cable.(2012-13)
Ans. Communication Channels
Communication channels make use of a variety of communication media. These include:
1. ‘Twisted pair wire,
2. Fiber optic cable,
3. Coaxial cable,
4. Satellite and
5. Terrestrial microwave.
1. Twisted Pair Wire: Twisted pair wasted pair uses two standard wires that are separately insulated and wasted together. The twisted part is protected by an outer layer of insulation can
is protected by an outer layer of insulation called a jacket. It is relatively inexpensive and easy to install. It is the same cable which is used in telephone system.
The disadvantage of twisted pair is narrow bandwidth. If transmission rates are in excess of 1 Mbps and cable runs are greater than 500 metres, twisted pair is a poor medium.
Shielded twisted pair is more precisely made than regular twisted pair that can support both higher transmission rates and longer cable runs upto 10 Mbps and over 1000 meters’ respectively.
2. Fibre Optic Cable: Fibre optic cable uses either plastic or glass fibre medium to carryout light signals. Although plastic is more durable with respect to bending, glass provides a lower attenuation (i.e. loss of power) of the transmitted signal. Glass also has a wider bandwidth and permits higher data transfer rates than plastic.
The transmitter is the electrical-to-optical converter. The receiver is an optical to electrical converter: Optical cable ranges from simple 1 fiber cables to complex 18 fibre jacket cables. An 18 fibre cables can provide nine full-duplex transmission channels.
Advantages: These are as follows:
(a) Fibre optic cable has a wider bandwidth than metallic conductors.
(b) Fibre optic cable permits voice, video and data transmission to be merged on one conductor.
(a) Fibre optic cable can be laid in noisy electrical environment because optical energy is not affected by electromagnetic radiation.
(d) Fibre optic cable does not generate cross talk because they do not generate electromagnetic Radiation.
(e) Because of low attenuation, fibre optic cable can be extended without he need for expeters as is generally necessary with metallic cables.
(f) The absence of radiated signals makes tapping virtually impossible.
Disadvantages: The major disadvantage of fibre optic cable is splicing. When fibre optic cables are spliced each fibre end must be aligned precisely to permit the maximum amount of light to be sliced fibers. This alignment is time consuming and costly. Secondly, these cannot be directly connected to the electronic devices as signals carried by fibre optic cables must be converted by transceivers from light signals to electric signals.
3. Conaxial Cable: It is made up of one wire, called a conductor, surrounded by a standard shield that serves as a ground. The conductor and the ground are separated by thick insulation and the entire cable is protected on the outside by an insulating jacket.
Coaxial cable is available in a wide variety of types and thickness. Thicker coaxial cable carries signals to longer distance than thinner cable but thicker cable is more expensive and less flexible than thinner cable.
4. Satellite: Satellites are becoming increasingly significant tools for transmitting data as alternative to traditional terrestrial circuits especially leased telephone lines. Distance means nothing to a satellite, as their receiving and transmitting cone can cover a district office, city, state or continent. Moreover, one message can be broadcast once to hundreds or thousands of receivers, error rates are very less.
5. Terrestrial Microwave: It is being used more and more for building private networks. An 18 GHz microwave band can carry several 1.5 Mbps channel that support voice and data transmission simultaneously. Moreover, installation is more quicker than cable based system.
The trade-offs for microwave are that frequency bands in the 2 GHz to 6 GHz ranges are most difficult to license and have the most interference problems.
The path travelled by the microwaves must be a clear path of sight. Microwave energy travels in wavefronts that can be affected by obstacles along the route.