MBA 1ST Year Productivity and Quality Long Question Answer in English: – In this Post you will find MBA 1 year related to important questions related to the answer such as the Operation Concept Answer and many other important questions. Short Questions are answered in section A
LONG ANSWER QUESTIONS
Q.1. What is Total Quality Management (TOM)? Discuss the importance and imple
TQM)7 Discuss the importance and implementation of TQM.
Or State the meaning of TOM. State the characteristics and objectives of TQM.
Ans. Total Quality Management (TQM): Total Quality Management (TQM) is known by many name given by different practitioners. In the lapanese language it is called ‘Hinshitu Kausi’ translated by the Japanese as TQM, Total Quality Control (TOC) or Company Wide Quality Control (CWQC). Some call it Total Quality Improvement (TRI) and some as ‘Zero defects’ programme.
Examples of Total Quality Management
To manufacture the product by applying JIT to remove the wasteful steps so that the product can be the perfect at every part to satisfy the needs of customer. Other activities can also be included into total quality management like product design, process selection to improve the quality of the product excellently.
Total quality management may be defined as ‘Managing the entire organisation so that it excels on all dimensions of products and services that are important to the customer’. It has two fundamental operational goals, namely:
1. Careful design of the product or service.
2. Ensuring that the organisation’s systems can consistently produce the design.
These two goals can only be achieved if the entire organisation is oriented towards them hence the term total quality management. Total quality management became a national concern in the United States in the 1960’s primarily as a response to Japanese quality superiority in manufacturing automobiles and other durable goods such as room air conditioners. A widely cited study of Japanese and US air conditioning manufacture showed that the best quality American products had higher average defects rather than those of the poorest Japanese manufacturers. So severe was the quality shortfall in the United States that is improving it throughout industry.
Importance of Total Quality Management
The way of doing business has certainly changed all over the world. We can recollect the days of shortage economy which to some extent tends to continue in some areas still when the supply of goods and services were limited, the customer had to accept what was available and hence do with it. When shortage is no longer the case, the customer has options and choices. When he is not satisfied with a no longer buys it, he tells his friends and dissuades them from buying it. In this situation product, he no longer buys it, he tells his friends where seller’s market has changed to buyer’s market, there is no way that an organisation can exist without satisfying the customer.
Therefore, the best quality has to be delivered to the satisfaction of the customer. Competing Therefore, the best quality has to with the best into the world, at an economical cost, is also making the employees’ aspiration. This is done by the practice of total quality management. The alternatives to total quality what is aimed to be done by the pracu management will be only the death of our industry.
Points of Caution in Total Quality Management Implementation
1. Total quality management implementation should not be halfhearted activity.rull commitm. from all levels of employees is essential for its success. Commitment is continued pursuit goals tasks under all circumstances. s at all levels to undergo attitudinal
2. Total quality management requires the employees at alrs as well as the other non-managerial informational and skills training. Training the managers astation. staff is essential to total quality management’s proper impleme
3. Total quality management should be clearly directed activity with a definite goal towards which the organisation would slowly but surely move. Therefore, there should be strategic plans and specific attainments chalked out. The goals should be clearly measurable for their quantum of realisation. There should be clear matrix for the same
4. Total quality management should be focused on the customer. Complete satisfaction of the customer is the aim. Other factors should not confuse or dilute their amm. 5. Total quality management is an ongoing activity, because the requirements/preferences of the customer may change.
6. Total quality management should also not lose its sights on key business results. Focusing on the customer can only be done if the organisation is able to survive and produces sufficient returns on investment as is amply clear, without an undiluted customer forces. the organisation’s business results would suffer in the long run if not in the short run. Full attention to both customers and key-business result is essential.
Characteristics of TOM
The characteristics of TQM are as follows:
1. Customer Focus: TQM places emphasis in meeting the requirement of both the internal as well as the external customer.
2. Continuous Process: TQM is a continuous process. Constant and continuous efforts are made to improve the quality and to reduce internal costs.
3. Defect-free Approach: TQM places emphasis on the defect-free work most of the time. The defect-free approach is phrased in various ways as right first time, working smarter with zero defects.
4. Employees Involvement as Synergy in Team: In TQM everyone is involved in the process from the management director to the junior clerk or worker in the organisation.
5. Recognition and Rewards: Recognition and rewards are an integral part of company’s TQM programme.
6. System Approach: TQM is a system approach to managing the business and improving the performance.
Objectives of TQM
The objectives of TQM are as follows:
1. Decrease of mistakes in all operating areas.
2. Early mistake recognition.
3. Mistake prevention as a preventive step.
4. Avoidance of wastes. 5. Reduction of the lead times.
6. Increase of the flexibility and profitability.
7. Better capture and conversion of the customer’s needs.
8. Contented position of the customers.
MBA 1ST Year Productivity and Quality Loge Question Answer in English
Q.2. Explain Deming’s famous 14 points.
Ans. Deming’s famous 14 points are summarised below:
1. The top management’s commitment for ever improving quality is a must.
2.Vigorous programmes of retraining and education of employees are must
3. Ramove obstacles is the good workmanship of hourly workers to instil a sen of pride in them.
4. Employees should be trained on the job. Training on quality techniques should be continual as learning never ends.
5. Consistency of purpose is a must for continual impro yol purpose is a must for continual improvement of a product. Managers have to ensure that the company’s vision of quality is understood by all the employees a lity is understood by all the employees and that they move continuously towards it.
6. Continuous change and innovation is a must for survival. In today’s complex busa must for survival. In today’s complex business situation, it is not possible for a small group of managers to identify and sort enor a small group of managers to identify and sort out quality problems. Thus, all the employees have to be involved in this process.
7. The attitude of supervisors and managers towards workers should upervisors and managers towards workers should be that of a facilitator. by workers should be treated by supervisor as an opportunity to learn the process and systems better. Teamwork should be promoted and rewarded.
8. Posters and slogans should be eliminated. These must not be used to tell the workers to work harder. Instead, they should be provided with tools and training so that they work smarter leading to better quality.
9. The barriers between departments and individuals should be removed. Problems should not be handled within strict functional limits and the concerns raised by related functional areas should not be ignored.
10. Quality cannot be achieved only by inspection. Inspection wastes valuable production time and adds to the product’s cost without any value addition. Inspections may not be perfect, causing some defects to be passed onto the customer. Defects are symptoms removed by inspection, while the disease remains intact. Inspections create a gap between the people and processes that introduce defects and the people and processes that detect defects.
11. Wastes should be eliminated in every functional area, not just production. Even processes of accounting, HRM, customer service, and sales effect the quality of the product and thus generate waste. Therefore, the whole organisation should contribute towards the enhancement] of quality.
12. Numerical targets and work standards may affect quality. Reasonable numerical targets make the workers competent, while excessively demanding ones may lead to a compromise or quality in order to achieve the targets. Such targets cannot be eliminated, but can be set such that quality is not compromised.
13. Encourage workers to give quality improvement ideas without fear. Workers refrain from giving new ideas of change because they may have to work with new and unfamiliar methods in place of known and comfortable, through inefficient methods. They also feel that if their ideas fail it may affect their performance appraisal, eventually leading to job insecurity.
14. The lowest price should not be the sole criteria for selecting a supplier. Suppliers asking for lowest prices often offer low quality products, leading to an increase in the overall cost to the huver due to the increased expenses of inspection, scrap, network, and inventory to renlace defective items, etc. Thus, the supplier offering the lowest total cost should be selected.