MBA 1ST Year Productivity and Quality Short Sample Model Paper: – In this Post you will find MBA 1 year related to important questions related to the answer such as the Operation Concept Answer and many other important questions. Short Questions are answered in section A
SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS
Q.1. biscuss the concept of quality.
Ans. The quality Guru I.M. Juran defined uality as ‘Fitness for purpose’ For accessing the quality subiective, which may vary from w ona of a product or service, the criterion of ‘Fitness for purpose’ is highly subjective, w Individual to individual. The perception of the quality of a product or service from the pom customer may be different from that of the producer. The producer’s problem is aggravated by the fact that the number of customers may be too many, and each one may be having a different percepcion of quality. If a third party, such as a quality certification agency, has to decide the quality of the product or service, its perception may be different from that of both the customer and the producer.
Q.2. Explain about dimensions of quality.
Ans. Dimensions of Quality: In order to develop a more complete definition of quality, there are some of the key dimensions of a quality service:
1. Performance: It is often a source of contention between customers and suppliers, particularly when deliverables are not adequately defined within specifications. As such, many contracts or specifications include damages related to inadequate performance.
2. Features: This dimension may seem obvious, performance specifications rarely define features required in a product. It is important that suppliers designing product from performance specifications are familiar with its intended uses, and maintain close relationships with the end users.
3. Reliability: It may be closely related to performance.
4. Conformance: Conformance answers several questions like if a product development is based on a performance specification, does it perform as specified? If its development is based on design specification, does it possess all of the features defined?
5. Durability. It is related to warranty. Requirements for product durability are often included within procurement contracts and specifications.
6. Serviceability: As end users become more focused on total cost of ownership than simple procurement costs, serviceability is becoming an increasingly important dimension of quality and criteria for product selection.
7. Aesthetics: The way a product looks is important to end users. The aesthetic properties of a product contribute in a company’s identity. Faults in a product that diminish its aesthetic properties, even those that do not reduce or alter other dimensions of quality are often cause for rejection.
8. Perception: It is reality. The service may possess adequate superior dimensions of quality, but still fall victim to negative customer perceptions.
MBA 1ST Year Productivity and Quality Short Sample Question Answer
Q.3. Explain the cost of quality.
Ans. Cost of Quality: There are a number of definitions and interpretations of the term cost of quality. From the purist’s point of view, it means all of the costs attributable to the production of quality that are not 100% perfect. A less stringent definition considers only those costs that are the difference between what can be expected from excellent performance and the current costs that exist.
Following are the three basic assumptions to justify an analysis of the cost of quan
1. Failures are caused,
2. Prevention is cheaper,
3. Performance can be measured.
The cost of quality is generally classified into four types:
Appraisal Cost: Cost of the inspection testing and other tasks to ensure that the product or process is acceptable.
2. Prevencon Cost: The sum of all the cost to prevent defects, such as the cost to identify the cause che defect, to implement corrective action to eliminate the cause, to train personnel, to reus duct on system and to purchase new equipment or make modifications.
3. Internal Failure Cost: Cost for defects incurred within the system, scrap, rework
4. External Failure Cost: Cost for defects that pass through the system, customer warranty placements, loss of customers or goodwill, handling complaints and product repail.
Q.4. Compare the Quality Gurus (Crosby, Deming, Juran’s Quality Trilogy).
Ans. Comparison of Quality Gurus
|S.No.||Basis of difference||Crosby||Deming||Juran’s quality trilogy|
|1.||Definition of quality||According to Crosby, Quality means conformance of requirements.||According to deming, quality means a predictable dependability at low cost and suited to the market||According to Juran’s quality trilogy means fitness for use.|
|2.||Degree of sen- ior manage- ment respon- sibility||Degree of senitor management responsibility is responsible for quality.||Degree of senior management responsible for 94% of quality problems.||Degree of senior management responsibility is less than 20 % of quality problems due to workers.|
|3.||Performance standard/ motivation||Performance standard/ motivation is zero defect.||Quality has many scales that use statistics to measure performance in all areas, critical of zero defects||Performance standard/ motivation is to avoid campaigns to do perfect word|
|4.||General approach||General approach is preventin, not inspection.||General approach is to reduce variability by continuous improvement, cease mass inspection.||General approach is general management approach to quality especially human elements.|
|5.||Structure||Structure has 14 steps to quality improvement.||Structure has 174 points jfor management .||Structure has 10 steps to quality improvement|
Q.5. What do you understand by quality improvement and Cost reduction?
Ans. Quality Improvement and Cost Reduction: Quality improvement actually initiate Cost reduction. Quality here refers to the process quality of manage employees’ work. Improving the work progress quality results in fewer mistakes, fewer rejects and less rework, shorter lead tin Quality and reduced use of resources, therefore, lowering the overa improvement strategy
of operations. Quality improvement is synchronous with bet is defined as any intervention yields as well. aimed at reducing the
Quality improvement can be distinguished from quality gap for a group of control in that quality improvement is the purposeful change patient’s representative of process to improve the reliability of achieving an outcome. those encountered in routine
Reducing the cost of operations while at the same time practice. enhancing the quality of the product is a vital aspect.
Quality Improvement Tools:
The various tools used for quality improvement are as follows:
1. PDCA/PDSA Cycle: Refer to Section-B, Q.6.
2. Kaizen: It is a Japanese term and its meaning is ‘Change for the better. The concept of Kaizen encompasses a wide range of ideas. It involves making the work environment more efficient and effective by creating a team atmosphere, improving daily procedure, ensuring employee satisfaction and making a job more fulfilling, less time consuming and safer.
3. Six Sigma: Refer to Section-A, Q.14.
4. Total Quality Management (TQM): It is a management system for a customer focused organisation that involves all employees in continual improvement of all aspects of the organisation.
5. International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO): Refer to Section-B, Q.22.