1. Listening skills can be improved by training and instructions.
2. When improvement in listening is achieved, it may not be permanent.
3. There is a distinct difference between speaking rate and listening rate.
4. Generally, there is a high correlation between listening and intelligence.
5. A good listener can often restructure vague speaking into clearer meaning.
6. A good listener learns to:
(a) distinguish facts from opinion.
(b) understand and evaluate inferences and reasoning.
(c) detect prejudices, assumptions, attitudes.
7. An attentive listener stimulates better speaking by the speaker.
8. A good listener learns more than the indifferent listener.
Q.4. What makes people poor listeners? Suggest how one can overcome the barriers that cause poor listening?
Ans. Any interference or noise that interferes with the listening process can create misunderstanding and confusion and leads to communication breakdown. This makes a speaker disturbed and a listener becomes poor listener. Some barriers that makes people poor listeners are as follows:
1. Physical distractions and disturbances disrupt the process of listening like noise or physical discomfort.
2. Feelings of anger, frustation, sadness, anxiety or fear influence listening.
3. Different cultures also affect listening process.
Overcoming Barriers to Listening
The techniques to overcome poor listening includes:
1. A listener must exhibit behaviour of making eye contact that encourages the speaker.
2. A listener must show that he is interested in listening.
3. Avoiding actions, mental presence, etc. are some other measures of exhibiting interest in listening.
4. An effective listener always asks questions, clarifies doubts, seeks explanations, etc.
5. Good listeners interpret the speaker after completing his speech.
6. Don’t interrupt to question or argue about facts.
7. Don’t play with papers, pencils or anything else while listening.
8. When faced with a genuine request for your opinion, give it honestly.
9. The total meaning of the message that is being communicated must be liste
10. Main points are required to be searched out.
11. An angry person almost inevitably gets wrong meanings from words.
12. Many listeners mistake silence for listening.
13. It is desirable to drop attitudes about a speaker.
Q.5. Write down the various forms of non-verbal communication and explain its effects.
Or What is non-verbal communication? Explain its nature and importance. (2011-12)
Ans. Non-verbal Communication: The word ‘Non-verbal means not involving words or speech. Thus, a non-verbal communication is a wordless message received through the medium of gestures, signs, body movements, facial expressions, tone of voice, colour, time, space, style of writing and choice of words. It is not necessary to communicate verbally all the time for conveying the messages. It is also possible to communicate without words, i.e. through non-verbal communication.
Non-verbal communication in its broadest sense means all transmission of meaning except that which is expressed in oral or written words. It is communication through facial expressions, body positions, eye contact, other physical gestures, postures, clothing, tone and volume of voice, speech of speaking, etc. Sometimes it is also called as ‘The silent language.
Non-verbal communication is often used to supplement verbal communication by highlighting or reinforcing parts of a verbal message. Non-verbal communication is generally uncertain, both in meaning and in likelihood of receipt. The meaning of non-verbal communication is particularly ambiguous, when it is inconsistent with a simultaneously transmitted verbal message.
- Kinesics (Body Language): The academic study of body motions is called ‘Kinesics. It is actually the study of role of body movements in the form of facial expressions, personal appearance. head movements, eye contact, body positions or postures, gestures, body shape, smell and touch, etc. while undergoing the process of communication.
It is a body language that actually plays an important role in the process of communication and making a particular communication process more effective.
. 2. Paralanguage: Paralanguage are the non-verbal factors like tone of voice, the emphasis on any particular sentences or words, the break up in the sentences, the speed of delivery, the degree of loudness or softness and the pitch of the voice, which affect the spoken words. It is the study of how a speaker actually verbalises. Voice quality and extra sound effects make one’s speech or message more effective. Paralanguage tells the communicators on ‘How to communicate’ and not ‘What to communicate.’
- Proxemics (Space Language): Proxemics is the technical name for using the sense of space between the words in the sentence, that a communicator is communicating. It is the subject that deals with the way people use the physical space to communicate.
- Use of pause or space distancing plays a very vital role in the process of communication. Space distancing differs from one culture to the w euge B another. Space distancing sometimes may be misconstrued and
Nonaffect the communication and the message content.
- Chronemics (Time Language): Chronemics is the consist of hidden messages, technical name for the subject that deals with the way people it is the cues which convey use time dimension or time. Edward T. Hall was the first scholar message. who investigated the importance of this element of interpersonal communication. It involves the meaning given to time dimension when we are communicating it to someone. Completion of task within a specific time span communicates sincerity, hard work, loyalty and reliability whereas frequent late coming and absenteeism may communicate unreliability, laziness and disinterestedness of the person.
Nature of Non-verbal Communication
Non-verbal communication is often used to supplement verbal communication by highlighting or reinforcing parts of a verbal message. Non-verbal communication is generally uncertain, both in meaning and in likelihood of receipt. The meaning of non-verbal communication is particularly ambiguous when it is inconsistent with a simultaneously transmitted verbal message.
The non-verbal communication could be done by the help of visual or aural (auditory) methods. Visual methods are those methods which are seen whereas auditory methods are those which are heard. The examples of visual method of non-verbal communication are signs, colour, picture, etc. and on the other hand the examples of the auditory method of communication are visual, bells, horns, whistles, etc.
Importance of Non-verbal Communication
Non-verbal communication is distinct from oral and written communication. It takes place without the use of words. It is thus a very prominent third type of communication as distinct from both oral communication and written communication. The most significant dimension of non-verbal communication is its universality. Unlike verbal communication, which has a limitations in terms of reach, the non-verbal communication is universal in appeal. Although, all the non-verbal methods have instant effect because of quick perception by the receiver of the message. The time taken is very less to see a color or a picture and to hear a horn or a bell than to speak out and understand or to read and understand words or sentences. Hence, the non-verbal methods of communication as being speedy in conveyance and response are very useful in many circumstances such as:
1. In the case of traffic signs and signals, non-verbal method of communication is the most effective and efficient method of communication and that too in masses; as it requires an immediate or instant response from the people who are walking or who are upon their vehicles on roads.
2. In the case of visual advertisement on TV, it is found that TV advertisements are more effective and interesting as compared to radio advertisements.
3. The only method of communication to the illiterate people is through non-verbal symbols, i.e. through non-verbal methods of communication.
4. Communicating for dangerous or harmful products required visual signs and symbols to denote them as harmful or cautious. In such a way, non-verbal communication is more effective and significant.
5. For conveying more quickly and more effectively the reports whether commercial or non business requires charts and pie-diagrams to denote their results, in such cases non-verbal method of communication is more effective and significant.
6. For conveying ideas related to geography pictorial representation such as maps, charts, graphs, etc. are absolutely necessary. For instance, the communicator could communicate more effectively and the receiver may understand the matter because of non-verbal presentations in the compact form.
Q.6. What do you understand by body language? How does body language supplement verbal communication? (2012-13) (2013-14)
Or ‘Body language supplements verbal communication’. Elaborate.
Or How does body language supplement to verbal communication? Explain.
Or How does correct body language depict positive attitude?
Ans. Body Language: Body language includes the entire non-verbal and generally includes body movements, characteristics of physical appearance, the voice quality and use of space distancing. Technically it is known as ‘Kinesics.
“Kinesics means the study of the role of body movements such as winking, shrugging, etc. in communication’ Winking refers to as to close and open one eye quickly and deliberately; shrugging means to draw up and drop the shoulders abruptly (suddenly).
As it is rather more essential for a speaker to pay attention to the body language, it is equally important for the audience to learn and interpret the intricacies of body language. Although body language should be consciously learnt and mastered but most of us learnt it in the process of our interaction with and observation of people around us.
Elements of Body Language: The elements of body language are as follows:
1. Facial expression. 2. Personal appearance.
3. Head movements. 4. Postures. 5. Eye contact
6. Gestures. 7. Smell and touch. 8. Body shape.
Body Language Supplements to Verbal Communication
It is with the help of body language whether by the help of facial expressions or by the help of different gestures, or by one’s postures by the help of personal appearances; ones verbal communication reaches to the target receiver in the more better and effective manner. Even every movement of head or even the body shape gives a supplement to the verbal communication. Body language speaks more than the words. If in verbal communication, the communication is without body language or body movements, then it would not be that much effective. In every communication the basic motive is to communicate the right subject matter to the right person in the right form. So, in order to present the verbal communication a sender communicates by the help of facial expressions, tone of voice head movements, etc. who could effectively and efficiently communicates what he/she wants to communicate. Thus, a correct body language is required to depict positive attitude.