MBA 1st Year Software Long Questions Answers Study Material Notes 3 Mock Papers For Self – assessment solved case studies for practise Unit Wise Chapter Wise Notes Syllabus of the Content Notes
LONG ANSWER QUESTIONS
MBA 1st Year Software Long Questions Answers Study Material Notes | Index
MBA 1st Year Software Long Questions Answers Study Material Notes Page.1
MBA 1st Year Software Long Questions Answers Study Material Notes Page.2
MBA 1st Year Software Long Questions Answers Study Material Notes Page.3
MBA 1st Year Software Long Questions Answers Study Material Notes Page.4
Q.1. Give the block diagram and the organisation of a computer system.
Or Draw a block diagram to illustrate the basic organisation of a computer system and explain the functions of the various units.(2007-08)
Or List the essential components of a computer along with their functions.(2011-12)
Ans. Block Diagram and the Organisation of a Computer System: Figure shows the block diagram of a computer system. It also describes the working of a computer. In Fig.
(a), the input data goes to RAM (Random Access Memory), which is also known as main memory. The data is transferred from the main memory to CPU for processing and after it, goes to main memory from CPU. The main memory is volatile in nature and smaller in size and therefore, the data from the main memory is transferred to storage or secondary memory for the permanent storage. To use the data of secondary memory, the stored data is read into the main memory. To see the result, the data is sent to the output device, the red arrow shows all the data flow. The blue arrow shows the control signal sent by the control unit of CPU to the other units. These signals control the working of the other units.
The organisation of the components on the anatomy of the computer are given below:
1. Input Unit: All the instructions and data are put together into the computer with the help of input unit. The input unit refers to input devices with the help of which any person can interact with the computer. The input unit consists of external input devices like keyboard, mouse, joystick, track ball, touch screen, light pen, digitizer, microphones and some storage devices, etc. These devices put the data in the form of signals that could be recognised by the system.
2. CPU (Central Processing Unit): It is also known as the brain of the computer system. The CPU itself has three parts namely Control Unit (CU), ALU (Arithmetic Logic Unit) and temporary registers These temporary registers are also known as scratch pads.
All the components of a CPU are shown in Fig. (b).
The coordination and control of the operations of a computer
Control Arithmetic system is the sole responsibility of control unit. The control unit helps in accepting the instructions stored in main memory, interpret these instructions and processes them for execution by appropriate parts of the computer in the correct sequence. It sends the signals Temporary registers to accessories and other parts of the computer and also receives the signals from them. These signals are used to control these devices and are part of the computer.
3. Memory: Information which is input into the computer with the help of input device is sent to Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) from the main memory where comparisons or calculations are done and the result is sent back to main memory scratch pads or temporary registers are used to store the data which is to be most frequently used by the ALU repetitively. This prevents the most frequently used data to be called from the main memory by the CPU again and again to save time.
4. Output Unit: To see the processed information, output unit is used. The output device may be a monitor or a printer. It also may be a floppy disk, hard disk or a CD to store the result. The information from main memory is sent to output device.
Q.2. Give the classification of computers.
Or Write short notes on: 1. Digital computer, 2. Analog computer, 3. Hybrid computer. (2007-08)
Or Classify different types of computers and their applications in todays competitive business environment.(2010-11)
Or Differentiate among microcomputers, minicomputers and mainframe computers. (2011-12) Ans. Classification Based on Performance: Based on the way the system performs the computations, a computer can be classified into three categories:
1. Digital Computer: A digital computer works with digits or numbers. These computers can perform several different tasks and are interactive in nature. If the input in these computers is given incorrectly, the process can be terminated and restarted with the correct input. These computers are usually used for business and scientific applications. They are most popular and widely used computers.
2. Analog Computer: An analog computer works on the principle of continuous measurement of physical phenomenon like length, breadth, rotation, etc. It deals with continuous data and does not communicate directly with numbers like digital computers. It uses signals as inputs and outputs in terms of actions or environmental/conditional changes (speed, temperature, chemical changes, moisture, etc.). These are designed for measuring the variable characteristics at definite points of time. These are used for simulation and modelling of systems, engineering and scientific applications.
3. Hybrid Computer: Computers can also be built using some parts employing digital computations and some parts based on analogue principles, such computers are called hybrid computers. These computers are mostly used with process control equipment in continuous production plants like oil refineries, etc. and used at places where signals as well as data are to be entered into components.
Factors Used to Classify Computers
The computers can also be classified on the basis of the following factors:
1. Speed: The term ‘Speed’ of a computer stands for the numbers of the instructions executed by it in one second, usually written as instructions per second. The number of instructions executed by the computer in one second are usually measured in terms of kilo instructions per second (kips) or million instructions per second (mips).
2. Size of Main Memory or Storage Capacity: The storage capacity for the size of the main memory) of a computer means the addressable part of the main memory. In fact, it is a part of the main memory that is available to the user and is available as RAM, also called as R/W or Read/Write memory. The size of the memory is expressed in terms of the kilo-bytes abbreviated to KB or in terms of mega-bytes written as MB.
3. Peripheral Devices: The data processing capacity or size of a computer is closely related to the peripheral devices, which it can support. These peripheral devices, i.e. input and output devices, may include floppy disks, hard disks, CD-ROMs, line printers and plotters, etc. More the number of high speed devices a computer system can support, more is its data processing capacity.
4. Word-size or Word-length: A word, more appropriately, a computer word, is the basic unit to store one character in computer memory. The size or length of a computer word is usually measured in terms of bits (binary digits). However, sometimes the word size or word-length of a computer is expressed in terms of bytes (1 byte = 8 bits).
5. Software Support: Software support means the programs, usually in the form of packages, available for use with computer. If a computer system can support wide variety of software, then its data processing capacity is quite high.
Classification Based on Above Factors
Now on the basis of the above factors, the computers can be classified as follows:
1. Microcomputers: These are also known as personal computers. These are the smallest category of computers consisting of microprocessor and associated storage and input/output devices. Earlier microcomputer systems had very less speed of processing (about 100 kbps) and word length of 8 to 16-bits. They had very less storage capacity (less than 1 MB). But today, there is a wide range of microcomputers that have even more processing speed and storage capacity than the earlier minicomputers and mainframe computers. Though, they are smaller in size and portable, they have full capabilities of so called large computers. They are very cheap in comparison to mini and mainframe computers. These machines are generally used for accounting financial analysis of small companies, engineering and scientific applications, word processing, computer graphics, education, etc.
MBA 1st Year Software Long Questions Answers Study Material Notes
2. Minicomputers: These are also known as mid range computers. These were first developed as special purpose mainframe computers for process control in industries. But now-a-days, these are also used as general purpose machines and hence it is difficult to distinguish between mainframe and minicomputer systems. Relatively fast but small and inexpensive as compared to a mainframe is a minicomputer. A minicomputer can typically support 10 to 12 terminals. Minicomputers work well in what are known as distributed data processing, i.e. a company’s processing power is decentralised or distributed across different computers. Earlier minicomputers have processing speed nearly 500 kips. But today, they also have processing speed in mips. They can also use a large number of high speed peripheral devices. The major areas of applications of these computers are process control in industries, engineering and scientific research, time sharing services and front end processors for large computers.
3. Mainframe Computers: A large computer system that has the capability to support more powerful peripheral devices and terminals is called a mainframe computer. A mainframe computer can technically support about 32 computers. These computers are much faster than minicomputers. The processing speed of these computers is in mips. The word length is of 32 to 64 bits. Storage capacity is usually more than 16 mips. They can have xchangeable hard disks, high-speed magnetic disks, line printers and laser printers as peripheral devices. Usually, large organisations like insurance companies, banks, airlines and railway reservation systems rely on these computers. The major areas of applications by these computers are complex engineering
designs, scientific research, large-scale reservation systems, online communication with large databases, front end processors for supercomputers, etc. They cost more than ten thousand of dollars.
4. Supercomputers: Computers, that are used for complex scientific computations are known as supercomputers. It’s very large size and very high speed (more than 100 mips) characterise them The word length for these computers is more than 64 bits. They have more than one processing unit and performs parallel processing. The storage capacities of these computers are extraordinarily large The major areas of applications of these computers are weather prediction, crystallographic analysis. design of complicated machines, such as supersonic jets and space research, etc. A large number of high speed peripheral devices can be used with these computers.
Applications of Computers
Now-a-days, almost every person is aware of the name of computer. It has become an important part of our life. We can see computer in our homes, colleges, libraries, offices, railway stations, airports, hospitals, factories, banks, hotels and departmental stores and at other places. In colleges, it is used for education, generation of results and marksheets, keeping students and employees records, fee collection, etc. At railway stations and airports, it is used for ticket reservation, in factory for making complex design of different products, in offices to keep the details of employees and their salary, in hospitals to diagnose the illness of patients and maintaining their records, in bank to maintain the accounts of account holders, in hotels to keep the customers record and booking rooms and in departmental stores to issue bills and maintain a record of different items present in the stores. These days it is also being used extensively in the field of entertainment. All TV advertisements and many movies are using special effects of computer graphics to make them more interesting. The use of computer is available mostly at every place and area.
Thus, in today’s competitive business environment the computer is used in banks, business, education, health care and even in supermarkets to make the processing automatic by saving both time and money.
Q.3. Give a detailed note on memory.
Or Distinguish between primary storage devices and secondary storage devices. (2006-07)
Or Highlight the importance of cache memory.
Or Differentiate between 1. Primary and secondary memory, 2. RAM and ROM. (2005-06)
Or Differentiate between RAM and ROM. Discuss various types of RAM and ROM in detail. (2007-08)
Or Explain magnetic storage devices and optical storage devices.(2014-15)
Or What is ‘RAM’in a computer system?(2015-16)
Ans. Memory: All the information (data or instructions), that is fed into the computer, is first stored into the main memory. The main memory is volatile in nature. It means that as you switch off the computer or the power goes away, the stored information remains no longer in main memory. To store the information permanently in computer, the information is sent to secondary memory from main memory. It means that the information retains in the secondary memory even after the computer is switched off.
To process the data, which is stored into the secondary memory, first it is sent to main memory and from main memory to CPU for processing.
The memory can be classified into two broad categories:
I. Main or Primary Memory
It is the fastest memory of a digital computer system. It is used to store program along with data to be processed. It also stores necessary software programs, which are necessary for processing of user’s program. The CPU directly access it. Primary memory can be further classified into two categories:
1. Random Access Memory (RAM): It is a part of main memory. It is temporary or volatile in nature. All the data and programs loaded wledge B into the memory are lost as the power is switched off. This is also known as Read/Write memory, as the programs and instructions information has to be in the memory keep on changing by the process of reading and transferred to the primary writing. There are two types of RAM:
(a) Static RAM (SRAM).
(b) Dynamic RAM (DRAM).
Static RAM and Dynamic RAM differ in the technology they use to hold data. Dynamic RAM needs to be refreshed thousands of times per second. Static RAM needs to be refreshed less orten wir makes it faster: Static RAM is more costly than dynamic RAM. Both types of RAM are volatile.
There are some more types of RAM:
(a) SDRAM (Synchronised DRAM): It is a new variant of RAM that includes an on-chip burst counter: With SDRAM, the CPU and RAM are locked together by the same clock. Thus, the speed of RAM and CPU are linked or synchronised.
(b) EDRAM (Enhanced DRAM): It is also known as cache RAM. This RAM works by adding a static RAM cache to the DRAM chip.
(C) ECRAM (Error Correcting RAM): It is built-in hardware for performing error detection and correction as data is being used.
(d) Cache Memory: It is a special type of memory, which is used to speed up a system. A cache memory is a block of fast RAM placed between the process and slower memory, i.e. main memory. When the CPU needs to read some information from the slower memory, that information is also copied into the cache where, if the information is needed again, it can be re-read from the faster cache memory.
2. Read Only Memory (ROM): It is also a part of primary or main memory. But it is not volatile in nature like RAM. It means that the contents of this type of memory remains even when the power is switched off. The data or instruction from this type of memory can be used to read only. Any change into the contents of ROM is not possible, i.e. you cannot write back into ROM. It is used to contain the programs or data, which are critical and used frequently. There are different types of ROM:
(a) Masked ROM (MROM): It is manufactured by masking and metalisation process. The pattern or matrix once created is permanent. No change or alteration is possible after once written.
(b) Programmable ROM (PROM): It may be programmed by the programmer by a special device called PROM programmer. It is also permanent and hence no alteration is possible after once written.
(c) Erasable PROM (EPROM): It is programmable ROM which may be programmed again and again. It is semi-permanent. Exposing it to ultraviolet light erases it.
(d) Electrically Erasable PROM (EEPROM): It is same as EPROM. The only difference is that electric signals are used to erase the contents instead of ultraviolet light.
(e) Flash Memory: It is a special type of EEPROM that can be erased and programmed in block instead of one byte at a time. Many computers have their BIOS stored on a flash memory chip so that it can easily be updated if necessary.
II. Auxiliary or Secondary Memory
It is a non-volatile memory, i.e. storage devices are permanently filled and can’t be erased by the user. The programmes and data are stored permanently for future use. The information stored in the secondary memory is not directly accessible to CPU. Secondary memory or secondary storage devices are classified as:
1. Magnetic Storage: The magnetic media uses magnetic material for storage. There can be various types of magnetic media like (a) Magnetic tape, (b) Magnetic disk, i.e. Hard disk and floppy disk.
(For more detail Refer to Section-C, Q.6.)
2. Optical Storage Media: These devices do not use magnetie storage instead they make use of optics or laser beams. A pin point laser beam is used to burn tiny holes on the reflective platter disk. This storage media is slower than the magnetic media. There are mainly two types of optical storage media.
(a) Compact Disk ROM (CD-ROM).
(b) Digital Video Disk ROM (DVD-ROM).
(For more detail Refer to Section-C, 04)
Other secondary storage media includes pen drive, USB pen drive is a small keyring sized device that can be used to easily transfer files between USB compatible systems. It is the latest storage device which works like a floppy The kind of memory used in the pen drive is the flash memory. The information in the pen drive can be edited, deleted and saved. The capacity of a pen drive may vary from 512 MB to 1 TB.
Q.4. What are the two commonly used types of optical disks? What is the basic difference between the two?
Or What is CD-ROM? Explain the mechanisms involved. How it differs from other compact disks available?
Ans. Optical Disk: An optical disk is also known as Laser Disk or Optical Laser Disk. It is a storage system consisting of a rotating disk, which is coated with a thin material that is highly reflective.
To record the data, a powerful laser beam is focused on the surface of the spinning disk to form tiny holes (or pits) burnt into the metal coating of the disk along its tracks.
To read the data, a less powerful laser beam is focused on the disk surface. This beam is strongly eflected by the coated surface and weakly reflected by the pits, producing patterns of ON-OFF reflections that can be treated as 1s and Os.
The storage capacity of optical disks is high, the storage cost is extremely low and the access time is relatively fast. Optical disk is approximately 4 inches in diameter
Optical Disk Drive: An optical disk has to be mounted on an optical disk drive, before it can be used for reading or writing an information. An optical disk drive contains the tray on which the disk is kept, the read/write laser beams assemble for focusing on the disk surface and the motor so as to rotate the disk.
Types of Optical Disks: The two most popular types of optical disks are:
1. CD: CD stands for Compact Disk. It is a shiny, silver colour metal disk. It has a storage capacity of about 650 MB or 700 MB. It is made from 1.2 mm thick polycarbonate plastic and weighs approximately 16 grams.
There are many varieties of CDs:
(a) CD-ROM (Compact Disk-Read Only Memory): These disks are pre-recorded and the information stored on them cannot be altered but can be read many times.
(b) CD-WORM (Compact Disk-Write-Once, Read-Many): WORM disks allow the users to create their own CD-ROM disks by using a CDrecordable (CD-R) drive. The information recorded on a WORM disk by CD-R drive can be read by any ordinary CD-ROM drive any number of times, but can’t be altered.
(c) CD-RW (Compact Disk-Rewritable): These are optical disks where data can be written, erased and re-written. Erasable optical disks are based on a technology known as Magnetic Optical (MO) disks. To write a data bit on the erasable optical disk the drive’s laser beam heats a tiny, precisely defined point on the disk’s surface and magnetises it. CD-RW disks costs more than CD-R disks.
(d) VCD (Video CD), SVCD (Super VCD), Photo CD, Picture CD, etc.: There are different types of CDs used to store video, audio, images, etc.
2. DVD: It stands for Digital Versatile Disk or Digital Video Disk. This is another type of optical media. DVDs can store six times or more data than CDs. Mostly DVDs are same in diameter as CDs.
In a single layer DVD, we can store 4.7 GB data. Whereas, in a double layer DVD, we can store 8.54 GB data.
There are many variations of DVDs:
(a) DVD-ROM has data that can only be read and not be written.
(b) In DVD-R and DVD+R, data can be written only once and then it will work just like a DVD ROM.
(c) In DVD-RW, DVD+RW and DVD-RAM, data can be written, read and erased many times, as we require.
(d) DVD-Video is properly formatted and structured in order to hold video contents.
(e) DVD-Audio is properly formatted and structured in order to hold audio contents.